- Who built the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna?
- Aisles of the Assumption Cathedral
- Temple under Dmitry Donskoy
- Kolomensky Church and Ivan the Terrible
- Paul of Aleppo about the temple
- Cathedral Bell Tower
- Restoration and restoration of the temple
- Patriotic War of 1812 and the feat of Father John
- Temple Saints
- The New Martyrs of the Temple
- Revival of the spiritual life of Kolomna
The Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna, located on the territory of the Kolomna Kremlin, delights with its strict beauty, light flying shape. He stands like a candle with a flame directed to heaven, burning with prayers for Russia and its people.
The cathedral was destroyed and rebuilt many times, rising from the ruins together with its country. He has heavenly prayer books, the saints who served here, the great love of the people, who have always collected huge funds for the repair of the church.
Who built the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna?
When the Russian troops were victorious in the battle with the Golden Horde on the Vozha River, all of Russia rejoiced. Saint Dmitry Donskoy laid the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna in memory of this event. In the 14th century, another grandiose victory took place in the Battle of Kulikovo over Mamai. And just at that moment, the construction of the church was completed.
During this period, the spiritual father and keeper of the seal of St. Dmitry Donskoy Metropolitan Michael served in the cathedral. An unusually gifted man, elected head of the Russian Church, died of a mysterious death on the way toConstantinople. The construction of the temple began to symbolize the deliverance of the people from the Tatar-Mongol yoke.
Aisles of the Assumption Cathedral
One parish was dedicated to the Assumption of the Mother of God, since it was on this holiday that the troops returned to the city with victory, which showed her prayerful intercession. After all, they prayed so much to her for victory and blessed the army with a great shrine - her Don icon.
Another lower parish was consecrated in honor of Dmitry of Thessalonica, as Dmitry Donskoy considered him his heavenly patron.
St. Nikita, known for many miracles, and St. Leonty of Rostov, who preached in Rostov and was killed by pagans, were chosen for the two upper aisles.
Temple under Dmitry Donskoy
At that time, the two-story, multi-domed Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna seemed huge compared to other churches in Moscow.
The temple, created under Dmitry Donskoy, stood in this form until 1672. It was painted after his death, the organization of work was carried out by his wife, who took over the management of many affairs.
Inside the cathedral had a rich decoration. The relics were the Donskaya icon of the Mother of God, which was located in the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna (its author was Theophanes the Greek), the relics of John the Baptist. A large library was assembled in the temple.
The whole history of the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna is closely connected with the history of Russia, its victories anddramatic events.
Kolomensky Church and Ivan the Terrible
During the reign of Ivan the Terrible on June 23, 1552 in the Assumption Cathedral of Kolomna, Bishop Theodosius, blessing the army for military operations with the Tatars near Tula, ordered everyone not to leave the church until God showed his will. After that, the enemies retreated.
Ten days later, the Russian regiments went on a campaign against Kazan, Vladyka handed Tsar John the shrine of the temple - the icon of the Don Mother of God. Ivan the Terrible then took the icon to Moscow, sending the temple two good lists in return.
Paul of Aleppo about the temple
The white-stone temple made an indelible impression on Paul of Aleppo, he enthusiastically and described it in detail in his book. In it, he admires its majestic appearance, airiness, decoration of domes, wooden figures and gilded crosses. He noted in detail the altars, windows, cellars and crypts. Of course, the delightful belfry of the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna, richly decorated with arches, fine carvings, twelve bells of various sizes, especially pleased the hearts of believers. The festive ringing of large bells was like thunder, to which melodic overflows were then added and floated in the air for many kilometers, and people, hearing the bells, bowed towards the temple and crossed themselves.
Cathedral Bell Tower
A separate building of a large bell tower was built in the 17th century. A tall rectangular structure crowned by a cone-shaped dome.
The strict appearance of the building emphasizes the importance of what is happening in it.After the cathedral was closed in 1929, all the bells were destroyed, now the belfry has been restored, and the largest heavy bell was named Pimen in honor of the Patriarch.
Restoration and restoration of the temple
The Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna, built by St. Dmitry Donskoy and standing for several centuries, it was decided to completely rebuild. To do this, it was dismantled in 1672, the work was entrusted to the architect Melety Alekseev.
White stones of the dismantled temple were laid in the foundation of the new building of the cathedral, the old foundation was partially left, the walls were rebuilt with bricks, well-preserved materials were used in the new construction. The work took about ten years. Repeated repairs and restorations have constantly changed the appearance of the temple.
The wooden roof was replaced with an iron roof at the end of the 18th century, then a new iconostasis was installed, and half a century later the shape of the domes was changed. At the beginning of the 19th century, the cathedral was painted. At that time, the archpriest in the cathedral was Mikhail Drozdov, father of the future St. Philaret of Moscow.
Some of the changes that occurred at the end of the 19th century were corrected and restored during major restoration work in 1963. By 1999, the cathedral was completely renovated and re-consecrated by Patriarch Alexy II.
Patriotic War of 1812 and the feat of Father John
During the fire in Moscow in 1812, the inhabitants of Kolomna clearly saw a huge glow. Everyone who could, in a panic, left the city: residents, officials who abandoned the wounded, including many clergymen, fled. In the Assumption Cathedral remainedArchpriest John Tverdovsky with mayor Fyodor Andreevich Dashkov. They called daily at the beginning of the service and performed the sacraments.
Morning chimes were familiar to thousands of people. They heard them and understood that Kolomna was intact. It was a real feat of loy alty to the service.
The history of the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna is inextricably linked with the history of Russia, its people and clergy. Dmitry Donskoy and Ivan the Terrible received a blessing here and led the troops to victory with the image of the Don Icon of the Mother of God.
St. Job, Bishop of Kolomna, the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, served in this church. He received a good religious education, early reached out to monasticism, accepted it against the will of his parents, so that nothing would prevent him from devoting his life to serving God and the Fatherland. Tsar Ivan the Terrible drew attention to him during his trips to the monasteries. Soon he became the last metropolitan and the first patriarch of all Russia. He was engaged in church reform and missionary activities, organized the printing of liturgical books.
The great Russian Saint John of Kronstadt prayed here during his arrival in Kolomna, thousands of believers greeted him, a grand procession took place. Many ministers performed their spiritual exploits here, were honored to become saints, and many undoubtedly deserve it, and their names are known to God.
The New Martyrs of the Temple
Tens of thousands of clericsafter the revolution, they were subjected to terrible torture, executions and exile.
The assembly of saints was replenished with the names of those who accepted the grace of martyrdom for Christ, did not deny and died with a prayer on their lips.
Dimitry Vdovin was born and raised in a simple family, was engaged in trade and served as a headman in the church. From 1922 to 1927, when it was life-threatening even to admit that you were a Christian, he served as headman at the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna. Briefly, if we talk about his fate, then the main thing should be noted: he was charged with anti-Soviet propaganda. He was arrested along with other clergy. In 1937, during interrogations, he confirmed that he was a believer, so he was sent to a camp, where he died of tuberculosis.
After graduating from the seminary, Sergei (Bazhanov) served in the Assumption Cathedral in Kolomna as a deacon until 1918, then he was ordained a priest, transferred to the village of Trinity Ozerki. The first time he was arrested, held for 2 years in prison, and then sent to a forced labor camp. When he was released, he continued his ministry. But in 1937, Father Sergius was again taken to the Taganka prison, and two weeks later they were shot and buried in an unknown grave.
From 1920 to 1929 Bishop Fedosy (Ganitsky) served in the church. By the time he arrived in Kolomna, he had already experienced persecution and arrests, he was under constant surveillance. Despite everything, he served, preached and enlightened. He spent 2 years in Butyrskaya prison, then 5 years in Kolomenskaya. He was canonized in 2006 as a priest.
Parishioners actively defendedministers, collected signatures, applied to the NKVD. It is quite possible that one of them also paid for it with life and freedom. After the arrest of Bishop Theodosius in 1929, the Dormition Cathedral in Kolomna was closed as much as they could, looted and desecrated, destroyed all the icons, part of the carved iconostasis. But what can compare with the blood of the righteous, which the commissars poured into the Russian land.
Revival of the spiritual life of Kolomna
The spiritual life of Kolomna began to develop rapidly since 1989 under the guidance and prayers of Nikolai Kachankin.
A Sunday school was opened where children and adults can study the Gospel and Scriptures, the law of God, the order of worship, hymns.
The creation of the Orthodox Brotherhood named after the Holy Prince Dimitry Donskoy in 1991 was a significant event in the Moscow diocese. It is engaged in educational activities and charity. A youth Orthodox movement has been organized, various courses, a patriotic club, and an educational medical center "Life" operate in the club. Hundreds of families eat at the charity canteen. The Brotherhood publishes the Blagovestnik newspaper.
On Easter days, there is a festival of sacred music, wonderful concerts where you can get acquainted with the church singing heritage, original works and interesting groups.
Thanks to people's love, prayers, deeds of saints, the temple today exists and is open to everyone who wants to attend worship, listen to the miraculouschurch singing, put candles and think about the innermost.