Francis Bacon: biography, philosophy

Francis Bacon: biography, philosophy
Francis Bacon: biography, philosophy
Anonim

Who is he: philosopher or scientist? Francis Bacon is a great thinker of the English Renaissance. A versatile person who has changed many positions, has seen several countries and expressed more than one hundred smart thoughts that guide people to this day. The desire for knowledge and oratorical skills of Bacon from an early age played a major role in the reformation of the philosophy of that time. In particular, scholasticism and the teachings of Aristotle, which were based on cultural and spiritual values, were refuted by the empiricist Francis in the name of science. Bacon argued that only scientific and technological progress can raise civilization and thereby enrich humanity spiritually.

Francis Bacon - biography of a politician

Bacon was born in London on January 22, 1561, into an organized English family. His father served at the court of Elizabeth I as keeper of the royal seal. And the mother was the daughter of Anthony Cook, who raised King Edward VI. An educated woman who knew ancient Greek and Latin, instilled in young Francis a love of knowledge. He grew up as a smart and intelligent boy with a great interest in the sciences.

Francis Bacon

At age 12, Bacon entered the University of Cambridge. After graduation, the philosopher travels a lot. The political, cultural and social life of France, Spain, Poland, Denmark, Germany and Sweden left their imprint in the notes "On the State of Europe" written by the thinker. After the death of his father, Bacon returned to his homeland.

Francis made his political career when King James I ascended the English throne. The philosopher was both Attorney General (1612), Keeper of the Seal (1617), and Lord Chancellor (1618). However, the rapid rise ended in a rapid fall.

Following the path of life

In 1621, Bacon was accused by the king of bribery, imprisoned (albeit for two days) and pardoned. Following this, Francis' career as a politician ended. All subsequent years of his life he was engaged in science and experiments. The philosopher died in 1626 from a cold.

Francis Bacon. Biography

Bacon is the author of many works, including:

  • "Experiments and Instructions" - 1597 - first edition. The book has since been expanded and reprinted many times. The work consists of short essays and essays, where the thinker talks about politics and morality.
  • "On the meaning and success of knowledge, divine and human" - 1605
  • "On the wisdom of the ancients" - 1609
  • Descriptions of the world's intellectuals.
  • "About a high position", in which the author spoke about the advantages and disadvantages of high ranks. “It is difficult to stand on a high place, but there is no way back, exceptfall, or at least sunset…”.
  • "New Organon" - 1620 - a cult book of that time, dedicated to the classification of science, its methods and techniques.
  • "On the Dignity and Growth of the Sciences" is the first part of The Great Restoration of the Sciences, Bacon's most voluminous work.

A ghostly utopia or a look into the future?

Francis Bacon. "New Atlantis". Two terms in philosophy that can be considered synonymous. Although the work remained unfinished, it absorbed the entire worldview of its author.

The New Atlantis was published in 1627. Bacon takes the reader to a remote island where an ideal civilization flourishes. All thanks to scientific and technological achievements, unprecedented at that time. Bacon seemed to look hundreds of years into the future, because in Atlantis you can learn about the microscope, the synthesis of living beings, as well as the cure for all diseases. In addition, it contains descriptions of various, not yet discovered, sound and auditory devices.

Francis Bacon. New Atlantis

The island is run by a society that unites the main sages of the country. And if Bacon's predecessors touched on the problems of communism and socialism, then this work is completely technocratic.

Look at life through the eyes of a philosopher

Francis Bacon is truly the founder of modern thinking. The thinker's philosophy refutes scholastic teachings and puts science and knowledge in the first place. Having learned the laws of nature and turning them to his own good, a person is able not tonot only gain power, but also grow spiritually.

Francis Bacon. Philosophy

Francis noted that all the discoveries were made by accident, because few people knew scientific methods and techniques. Bacon first tried to classify science on the basis of the properties of the mind: memory is history, imagination is poetry, reason is philosophy.

The main thing on the way to knowledge should be the inductive method and experience. All research must begin with observations, not theory. Bacon believes that only that experiment will be successful, for which conditions, time and space, as well as circumstances are constantly changing. Matter must be in motion all the time.

Francis Bacon. Empiricism

The scientist himself and his philosophy eventually led to the emergence of such a concept as "empiricism": knowledge lies through experience. Only having enough knowledge and experience, you can count on the results in your activities.

francis bacon empiricism

Bacon identifies several ways to gain knowledge:

  • "Way of the Spider" - knowledge is obtained from pure reason, in a rational way. In other words, the web is woven from thoughts. Specific factors are not taken into account.
  • "Way of the ant" - knowledge is gained through experience. Attention is concentrated only on the collection of facts and evidence. However, the essence remains unclear.
  • "The way of the bee" is an ideal way that combines the good qualities of both the spider and the ant, but at the same time is devoid of their shortcomings. Following this path, all the factsand evidence must be passed through the prism of your thinking, through your mind. Only then will the truth be revealed.

Obstacles to knowledge

It's not always easy to learn new things. Bacon in his teachings speaks of ghost obstacles. It is they who interfere with adjusting your mind and thoughts. There are congenital and acquired obstacles.

Innate: “ghosts of the family” and “ghosts of the cave” - this is how the philosopher himself classifies them. “Ghosts of the clan” - human culture interferes with knowledge. "Ghosts of the Cave" - ​​knowledge is hindered by the influence of specific people.

Acquired: "ghosts of the market" and "ghosts of the theater". The former involve the misuse of words and definitions. A person perceives everything literally, and this interferes with correct thinking. The second obstacle is the influence on the process of cognition of the existing philosophy. Only by renouncing the old can one comprehend the new. Relying on old experience, passing it through their thoughts, people are able to achieve success.

Great minds never die

Some great people - centuries later - give rise to others. Bacon Francis is an expressionist artist of our time, as well as a distant descendant of a philosopher thinker.

Francis the artist revered the works of his ancestor, he strongly followed his instructions, left in the "smart" books. Francis Bacon, whose biography ended not so long ago, in 1992, had a great influence on the world. And when the philosopher did it with words, then his distant grandson did it with paints.

Francis Bacon - artist

For his homosexual Francis Jr. wasexpelled from home. Wandering around France and Germany, he successfully got to an exhibition of paintings by Picasso in 1927. She had a huge impact on the guy. Bacon returns to his native London, where he acquires a small garage workshop and begins to create.

Francis Bacon is considered one of the darkest artists of our time. His paintings are vivid proof of this. Blurred, desperate faces and silhouettes are depressing, but at the same time they make you think about the meaning of life. Indeed, in each person such blurry faces and roles are hidden, which he uses for different occasions.

Despite their gloom, the paintings are very popular. The great connoisseur of Bacon's art is Roman Abramovich. At the auction, he bought the canvas "landmark of the canonical XX century" worth 86.3 million dollars!

In the words of a thinker

Philosophy is the eternal science of eternal values. Anyone who is able to think a little is a "little" philosopher. Bacon wrote down his thoughts always and everywhere. And many of his quotes people use every day. Bacon surpassed even the greatness of Shakespeare. So did his contemporaries.

Francis Bacon. Quotes

Francis Bacon. Note Quotes:

  • Walking along a straight path will overtake a runner who has gone astray.
  • There is little friendship in the world - and the least among equals.
  • There is nothing scarier than fear itself.
  • The worst loneliness is not having true friends.
  • Ste alth is the refuge of the weak.
  • In the dark, all colors are the same.
  • Hope is a good breakfast but a bad dinner.
  • Good is what is useful to a person, humanity.

Knowledge is power

Power is knowledge. Only by abstracting from everyone and everything, passing your experience and the experience of your predecessors through your own mind, you can comprehend the truth. It is not enough to be a theoretician, you need to become a practitioner! There is no need to be afraid of criticism and condemnation. And who knows, maybe the biggest discovery is yours!

Popular topic