What is a national park? Definition of the concept and characteristics

What is a national park? Definition of the concept and characteristics
What is a national park? Definition of the concept and characteristics

Each country has special state-protected areas - natural national parks. The definition of this place is of particular importance, since on their territory there are important natural, cultural or ecological objects that are under the protection of the state. The parks have different purposes, but all of them are united by common features - these places are interesting for tourists to visit, it is pleasant to contemplate beautiful landscapes along their paths, and the unique nature delights with its originality. Let's understand what national parks are. Let's look at the definition further.

Sablinsky ridge

What is this?

The general interpretation of the concept is accepted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. It defines what a national park is - it is a part of land or a reservoir in which there are natural unique objects of ecological, historical and aesthetic value. Their purpose is to perform one of the functions: environmental, recreational, educational or cultural.

There are threeramifications, in connection with which the states had a need to create national parks. Each country chose the definition (what it is) based on the goals of creation. So, these goals were:

1. Creation of the park exclusively for tourism and recreation. For example, Yellowstone Park (USA), Banff (Canada). What these national parks are is determined by their purpose, which is to entertain people. Today, Yellowstone Park is visited by several thousand tourists a day. This is a huge area with geysers, volcanoes, canyons, waterfalls, forests with wild animals and much more. Visiting this place is a true adventure.

2. The designation of a certain territory that has already been a place of tourist pilgrimage, and in the future will be a national park. This transition is associated with the presence of natural objects that need to be additionally protected by the state. For example, the Bavarian forest on the border of Germany and the Czech Republic, or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus. The latter was created to protect the unique European forest, whose history dates back to ancient times.

3. The organization of the territory under the prohibition of the use of its we alth. Consider from this point of view what a national park is. The definition of a protected area is related to the presence in it of important plants, animals, or historical objects that are of scientific interest. The park is created solely for the purpose of studying such objects.

Yellowstone Park


What is a national park (definition in terms ofecological importance) is a purposeful fencing of a territory, limiting its visits by people to preserve a unique ecosystem, a halo of rare animals or plants.

Recently, ecotourism is gaining popularity. This is a journey to natural areas in order to explore and better understand the world that surrounds us. Life in cities locks people up in stone walls, and they become further and further from nature. Ecotourism aims to connect people, flora and fauna. Traveling for this purpose, tourists turn off their gadgets, leave computers and work, retire with mother earth.

Bialowieza Forest

Types of ecotours

Depending on the object of visit, ecotours are divided into the following types:

  • Studying only plants.
  • For the purpose of observing animals.
  • There are separate eco-tours for watching wild birds (very popular in Europe).
  • Geological - the study of the earth's interior, stones, soil.
  • Ethnographic - visits to original settlements that have preserved the ancient foundations. In Russia, such parks have been preserved on the territory of the Chuvash Republic, the Republic of Mari El.
  • Archaeological. For example, the Samarskaya Luka National Park preserves the remains of the largest settlements of the Volga Bulgaria of the 9th-12th centuries.
  • Tours to visit historical places. Interesting objects in such structures are architectural structures, architectural monuments, museums.
European forest

In biology

Consider the definition for children.The national park is a place where man and mother nature can retire. This area is the epitome of the natural landscape, where there are bizarre waterfalls, unusual trees, endangered animals or beautiful mountain peaks.

Parks play a vital role in biology. It is easy to conduct research on their territory; special groups are created for this. Rare species of flora and fauna are preserved and restored here. Eco-educational and scientific activities are carried out for children.

Russian reserve

The difference from the reserve

Consider the definition of geography. A national park is an area where human activity is limited in order to protect the environment.

In the reserve, human activity is not just limited, it is completely prohibited. If tourism is welcomed in the national park, then in the reserve it is strictly limited. It is forbidden to hunt, gather, fish, etc. The ecosystem is of exclusively scientific value, and only people who have permission to study it can. Reserves are created in those places where there is a halo of habitat for endangered species of plants and animals.

national park

What are complexes: definition

The national park is often not isolated. Around it, infrastructure is being developed for entertainment and recreation of people. So, restaurants, hotels, places for camping and equipment rental, cultural and educational centers, museums, etc. are often placed near the entrance to the territory. This infrastructure is calledcomplex.

For example, the museum complex of the Curonian Spit National Park. Here is the main exposition, which tells about the nature of the Curonian Spit, about the role of man in the destruction and restoration of the fragile ecosystem of the peninsula.

The complex includes the museums "Ancient Sambia" and the museum "Superstitions". Nearby is the cafe "Kurena".

Russian Arctic

The largest national parks in Russia

1. "Yugyd Va" - spread over the forest and mountainous expanses of the Komi Republic. Its area is 18917.01 km2.

2. "Beringia" in Chukotka. This distant land keeps unique northern relics - plants and trees from ancient times. Territory area 18194, 54 km2.

3. It so happened that the largest parks occupied the northern latitudes. Another unique museum of nature is the "Russian Arctic" in the Arkhangelsk region. It occupies such natural zones as tundra, forest-tundra and taiga. Total area 14260 km2.

Characteristic features of natural parks

Features that distinguish this protected area from the reserve:

  • The flora and fauna have unique features that differ from the typical natural area of ​​the region. It is of scientific interest and is subject to study.
  • Economic activities have not damaged the fragile natural world of this zone.
  • The country's authorities prohibit or restrict economic activities, including cutting down trees,use of the riches of the bowels of the earth, hunting, fishing to preserve geomorphological, ecological and aesthetic features.
  • Visits to the park are allowed only for strictly defined purposes: recreation, excursions, scientific activities.

So we see what a national park is. Its definition characterizes the features of the territory described above. These places with unique natural objects need to be preserved and studied. The main difference from the reserve is in the number of people visiting. In the national park, it is practically not limited, it is more difficult to get into the reserve. Scientists are allowed there to study biosystems or tourists in a strictly limited number.

As for common features, these two territories are protected by law, it is impossible to conduct economic activities in them, and you can make fires and put up tents only in the places designated for this.

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