What is a geyser? What is a volcano geyser?

What is a geyser? What is a volcano geyser?
What is a geyser? What is a volcano geyser?
Anonim

What is a geyser, the townsfolk know mainly from school geography. Live, this natural phenomenon is brought to see volcanologists, some tourists and residents of seismically active regions.

what is a geyser

Terminology

By definition, a geyser is one of the manifestations of late volcanism, which is expressed in the periodic release of water into the air in a liquid or vapor state. In simple terms, this is a kind of source gushing out of the ground with one or another periodicity. Geysers are mud, water and steam, depending on the temperature and the presence of impurities in the way of their eruption.

Despite the rather banal definition, in fact, this natural phenomenon is considered one of the most spectacular and mysterious on the planet. This is eloquently evidenced by the popularity of the most famous geysers, the flow of tourists to which does not dry out, despite a certaindanger.

Physics of the process

In order to understand the principle by which such a source operates and where so much hot water comes from underground, one should turn to the study of volcanic activity. After all, geysers are mainly formed not by themselves, but near a more formidable and dangerous fellow. In this case, the volcano does not have to be active. The most famous and spectacular geysers are located on the site of extinct or sleeping giants.

geyser is

From the school curriculum, everyone knows that in the depths of our planet there is red-hot magma. It is also known about her constant attempts to get out, sometimes it turns out, which is accompanied by volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. This process is very destructive and sometimes ends with a change in the landscape.

A dormant volcano, like an active one, contains red-hot magma inside, but it does not come out, waiting in the wings and accumulating energy. But, as you know, the bowels of the earth are no less rich in water, which, breaking through to the surface, becomes springs, streams and even rivers. In order to understand what a volcano geyser is, you need to imagine the following. Suppose one of the underground rivers flows at a certain distance from the dormant magma. The water in it heats up, expands and tries to find a way out. In the end, she gets it in the form of a fountain or a cloud of steam. It all depends on what temperature it was heated to. It turns out that the volcano itself is sleeping, its energy is not enough to erupt magma, but it is enough topush out or even boil the water.

Mud Geyser

What is it, residents of settlements located near healing (and not only) thermal springs are well aware. Making its way to the exit, the water passes through the layers of various rocks, dissolving them. In the case when the fountain beats directly near the site of the volcanic eruption, passing through the layers of solidified magma, it often remains more or less transparent. Encountering softer and more pliable rocks on the way, the water mixes with them, and a gurgling mud mass comes to the surface.

what is a geyser

Quite often it contains trace elements useful for humans, which, thanks to a comfortable temperature, form a thermal spring, ideal for treatment. Resorts built on the site of such geysers are rich in Europe (in particular, Bulgaria), North America, Australia and New Zealand. Eastern Siberia has great potential, where this industry is not yet very developed, but there are all the necessary prerequisites for this.

Is the geyser dangerous?

Despite all its beauty and mystery, this natural phenomenon is a vivid example of the unsurpassed power and energy lurking in the bowels of the earth. Sometimes a geyser is just a warm lake with water periodically splashing to the surface and looking quite peaceful and safe. Sometimes it is a multi-meter fountain, bursting out with all its force and suddenness. And it happens that a cloud of steam appears from under the ground with a whistle, giving the impression that the planet is "breathing".

Therefore, in order to know how safe it is to be near such a source, it is necessary to understand what a geyser is in a particular case. And, being in the valley of an extinct volcano on an excursion, be sure to listen to the recommendations of the guide. After all, the main danger of most geysers lies in their suddenness. As a rule, tourists are not allowed to come close to powerful and too hot fountains.

what is a geyser definition [+]

The most famous geysers on the planet

They are located mainly in zones of volcanic activity. If we consider the most remarkable in terms of entertainment and scale, then first of all we should pay attention to the Yellowstone National Park in the USA. It is a huge area on which about 500 geysers are concentrated, which is 60% of all thermal springs on the planet. The largest of them is called Steamboat and reaches 120 meters.

Slightly smaller, but not inferior in terms of entertainment, the Valley of Geysers is located in Kamchatka. There are about 200 different sources. Looking at such greatness of nature, one can fully understand what a geyser is. The definition cannot express it in words. The beautiful and at the same time majestic play of water, steam and minerals is sometimes breathtaking.

The Geyser Park in Iceland takes the third place both in terms of scale and number of sources. The maximum height of the fountains here reaches 60 meters. This is undoubtedly amazing, but the height of the geysers is half that of the Yellowstone Steamboat.

What is a geyser,can be seen by visiting the states of Nevada and Alaska, where there are also quite a few of them. The North Island of New Zealand and Chile are famous for them.

what is a volcano geyser

The most mysterious geyser

This status deservedly received the American Fly, located in the state of Nevada. Due to the rich mineral composition, its surroundings have received a unique color. Fly is a collection of several fountains erupting from mineral-formed hills, reaching 1.5 meters and continuing to grow.

It is noteworthy that the geyser is man-made (albeit by accident). Drillers stumbled upon an underground thermal spring at the beginning of the last century while trying to build an ordinary well. Fly is currently closed to tourists, but thanks to its height, the geyser is perfectly visible from the road.

To understand what a geyser is, theoretical knowledge is not enough. To imagine all the beauty and power of this natural phenomenon, you must go on a journey to see it with your own eyes.

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