- Early history
- Problems in the church
- Weakening attacks on the Old Believers
- Who is buried in the ground of a unique cemetery in Moscow. List
- Rogozhskoye cemetery: how to get there
- Basic visiting rules
The cemetery seems to visualize the history of Russian Orthodoxy, recalls the split in the church and such a unique group of Christians as the Old Believers.
Rogozhskoye cemetery was founded in the eighteenth century behind the Pokrovskaya Zastava, on lands that previously belonged to Andronova Sloboda. During the period of the plague epidemic raging in Moscow, burial in the city was prohibited. As a result, new cemeteries were established. Including the preserved Rogozhskoye, Vagankovskoye, Kalitnikovskoye.
At that time, the cemetery, the photo of which became a sensation among art critics, was outside the city and was located in Andronova Sloboda. Count Orlov ordered on behalf of the Empress to bury the dead outside the city in order to avoid further spread of the plague.
First, the mass graves of the Old Believers appeared there. Catherine the Second even allowed representatives of their community to set up a shelter and a place for the poor nearby. The Old Believers built chapels. Those who were called "runaway priests" served in them. Only in 1822 was it forbidden to hire them.
Around the chapels, the first settlements of the representatives of the community began to appear. And at the end of the eighteenth century, they were even able to build a cathedralCover. It became the most important center of all Old Believers in the Russian Empire. Pilgrimages have been made there for many years.
During the attempts of the French to take Moscow, the minister of the church hid all the property of the cathedral in earthen pits.
Returned the gold and silver to their place only at the moment when the French left.
Starting from 1853, the Rogozhskoye cemetery became the official center of the Archbishopric of the Old Believers in Russia.
Problems in the church
After the death of the spiritual mentor Yastrebova, the church was divided. Some Old Believers went over to the Edinoverie together with Vladimir Sapelkin. At the same time, their parish was founded in one of the two chapels. The main reason for the separation was that some Old Believers wanted to become merchants, but since 1855 it was strictly forbidden for them.
In 1856, the authorities began to show active attention to the Rogozhsky cemetery. At the insistence of Moscow Philaret, both chapels were sealed.
Weakening attacks on the Old Believers
Only in 1905, already under Emperor Nicholas II, in honor of the great feast of Easter, the shrines were opened again and began to operate. The lord of the Russian Empire did this as a sign that the country is adopting a law on religious tolerance for other religions.
Over time, merchants began to build houses near the church. Some of them were buried in the Rogozhskoye cemetery. How to get there is described below.
Valuable documents were found at the church. The greatest importance for the history of Russia is Rogozhskychronicler" - an inventory of the fifteenth century.
Tombstones in the cemetery in many places are masterpieces created by eminent sculptors. For example, the architect Shekhtel made a chapel in honor of Morozov and his family.
With the beginning of the Soviets coming to power, the cemetery (the photo of which can be seen below) ceased to be colorful and Old Believer.
And in the later period, the interwar period, they began to secretly bury those who were accused of disagreeing with the Soviet regime. After being shot by the KGB, the bodies were taken and buried under the cover of night. Thus, the Rogozhsky cemetery of Stern, Loktionov, Smushkevich and others sheltered forever. They were warlords who were suspected of being a threat to power.
In addition to the mass grave of the Old Believers, two more were arranged there - those who died during the Patriotic War and in the hospitals of the capital.
On the territory of this cemetery are:
Cathedral of the Intercession, which retained the Old Believer diocese.
Belfry of the Resurrection.
Temple in honor of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker.
The prayer house is idle, as well as the Orthodox Cathedral in honor of the Virgin.
Who is buried in the ground of a unique cemetery in Moscow. List
You can walk around this place like a museum. Starting from the eighteenth century, he was constantly monitored, looked after the graves. The Old Believers valued it as the center of their religious culture.
Famous personalities who were shelteredRogozhskoye cemetery:
Soldatenkov, better known as a generous philanthropist, publisher of books, founder of an art gallery.
The Morozov family, including Timofey Savvich, and his son, and their descendant Academician Mikhail Akimovich.
The owners of the Ryabushinsky textile factory.
Archpriest from the Cathedral of the Intercession - Korolev.
Merchants and patrons of the Shelaputins.
The owner of the porcelain factory Matvey Kuznetsov.
Gita B alter - vocal teacher, musicologist.
Rogozhskoye cemetery: how to get there
Getting there is very easy. There are two ways to get to the Rogozhsky cemetery:
Go to the Rogozhskaya Zastava. After that, go not so long along the Vladimirskoye highway, and then turn onto Staroobriadcheskaya Street. They just changed their name. Now it is the highway of Enthusiasts, Voytovich street. She moves slightly to the right of the road. In this case, visitors simply enter from the most central gate.
Take public transport to the Pokrovskaya outpost. From it to the cemetery will have to go a little longer along the settlement. After that, the railway bridge will begin from the Nizhegorodskaya road. The gates of the cemetery will be visible very close to it.
The first route is preferable because it has less dirt and dust. But the second road is much quieter and calmer.
Basic visiting rules
Churches that stand on the territory of the Moscow cemetery, photos of which are available in the article, belong to twodifferent confessions. Those who will not be dressed according to the rules will not be allowed into the Old Believer shrines. Women's hair cannot stick out from under the scarf, sleeves must be much lower than the elbow, wearing trousers is prohibited. Bags cannot be worn on the shoulder.
Depending on whether there is a ceremony in the building, those of a different faith may not be allowed in.
The first temple that stands near the gate is a bell tower, created in pre-revolutionary times. Rogozhskoye cemetery in Moscow is famous for this shrine, which was built in honor of the removal of seals from the altars. She is stout. On the facade there are images from ancient legends - birds Gamayun, Sirin, Alkonost. Inside is a typical old Russian style. Icons of the fifteenth century are stored in the chapel.
Behind the bell tower there are two more temples. One of them, on the left, is Pokrovsky. Outside, it is designed in a simple, inconspicuous classical style. It is of great interest to any researcher of antiquity.
On the right hand is the temple at the Rogozhskoye cemetery in honor of the Nativity of Christ. It was built in luxurious baroque style.
Each of them can literally be called a museum on the history of icon painting in Russia. They store the icons that were brought to them by faithful parishioners - the Old Believers. There are even masterpieces from the fourteenth century.
If the restoration of icons was carried out, then only according to the laws of the Old Believers, without introducing innovations of the era.
In the templeIntercession, more church images from different historical periods have been preserved.
They open early in the morning and stay open until 11.50 or 12.00 when the last service takes place.
There are no requiem services on holidays, as well as on Sundays. In this regard, the temples are closed earlier than usual, around eleven.
The Old Believer ministry itself is very interesting with its ancient chants and prayers.
If a large group of tourists comes to the Rogozhskoye cemetery in Moscow, they can be allowed into the temple and tell in detail about its history, as well as about all the most interesting icons.
In the Cathedral of the Intercession there are also donations from Soldatenkov, who was a distinguished collector of antiquities.
After visiting the shrines, you can head to the Rogozhskoye cemetery. How to get to it is already known. An Old Believer archbishop lives between the temples and it. And all the church ministers of this community gather there for important events.
Behind the house was built a temple in honor of Nicholas the Wonderworker. Fellow believers serve and live in it. After passing three shrines, you can get to the graves in the cemetery.