- State symbols
- History of the origin of the coat of arms
- Modern coat of arms
- Flags in different periods of history
- Modern national flag
- History of the Anthem
- Similar songs of other nations
- State symbols of the President of Ukraine
Today we will try to tell you about the state symbols of Ukraine. This is a country with an interesting and original history, and Ukrainian symbols are rooted in ancient times. As you will learn later, some signs are known from the early Middle Ages.
We will try to trace the history of the formation of each of the national symbols, completing the sections with a description of modern state attributes. You will also learn about the symbols of the President of Ukraine.
The Constitution of Ukraine legally defines the following State symbols of Ukraine: the state flag, the national anthem and the state emblem.
All these attributes were adopted, according to the resolution of the Verkhovna Rada, in January - February 1992. Only the final text of the anthem was approved in March 2003.
Below we will consider Ukrainian symbols in more detail. Photos of various state signs will be given in the relevant sections.
History of the origin of the coat of arms
The oldest symbol of Ukraine (trident) is first mentioned on the seals of princesgenus Rurikovich. But there were different versions of bidents and tridents. Each new prince tried to make his own changes to this symbol. The most similar version of the badge is the seal of Volodymyr the Great.
Where did this image come from? Researchers offer us two versions. According to the first, this is a slightly modified two-pronged sign of the Khazar Khaganate, which is found in large numbers on coins and vessels.
The second option is more plausible. Based on the fact that Rurik came to Russia from Scandinavia, many in his squad wore the protective sign "Thor's hammer". It later evolved into a stylized falcon that swoops down to attack its prey.
It is this version that is the most historical today. There is, however, another option. Some researchers see a combination of pitchfork, anchor and scepter in the trident. There is even a reading of the encrypted word "will" in the curlicues of this sign.
Thus, the only indisputable fact is that this symbol belongs to the eighth-tenth century.
After the collapse of Kievan Rus, this symbol also disappears for several centuries. Daniil Galitsky has a crowned lion on his seal, and a Cossack with a musket was a distinctive sign in the Zaporizhzhya army.
In the process of joining some lands to Muscovy, all symbols were replaced by a double-headed eagle.
The return to the trident occurs only during the Ukrainian People's Republic. Then it is replacedgolden lion and a Cossack on a blue background in the Ukrainian state and a hammer and sickle in the Soviet Union.
The final restoration of the trident happened only in 1992. But this will be discussed further.
Modern coat of arms
The first national symbol of Ukraine, which we started talking about, is the coat of arms. Earlier we considered a brief history of its formation. In the modern state, theoretically, this symbol consists of the Great and Small coats of arms. But in fact only the latter exists. The Great Coat of Arms is still in the drafting stage.
Judging by its text, it should have a trident as a symbol of Volodymyr the Great, a Cossack with a musket (Zaporozhian army) and a lion with a crown (a sign of the Galicia-Volyn state).
The small coat of arms was approved in February 1992 by a decree of the Verkhovna Rada. It depicts the sign of Kyiv Prince Vladimir the Great, who baptized Russia in 988.
There are official color and black and white versions of the Small Coat of Arms, a separate sign of Prince Vladimir and a detailed scheme for constructing the coat of arms.
Flags in different periods of history
As we have already seen, the national symbols of Ukraine have changed in different periods of history. The flag was no exception. The colors that adorn the cloth today were only re-adopted after the collapse of the Soviet Union, in 1992. What happened before that?
Lviv banner (yellow lion on an azure background) was the first documented evidence of this coloring. This event belongs to the distant1410, when the Battle of Grunwald took place.
The Hetmanate of 1755-64 had standards with the same colors. The first actual use of two horizontal stripes was the flag of the Black Sea Cossack army, which Alexander I awarded him.
In 1848, these colors are used by the Lviv Main Russian Rada, during the revolution in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Further, this color Ukrainian symbolism was used in 1918 in the UNR and the Ukrainian state.
During the Soviet Union, the main color was red, but until 1941 there was a blue and yellow flag in Subcarpathian Rus.
Modern national flag
So, the national symbol of Ukraine that we are talking about now is the flag. Earlier, we looked at the various stages of its development.
Now it's important to make a note about his exact colors. It is only defined in the Pantone Matching System. There, yellow corresponds to the shade with the code "Pantone Coated Yellow 012 C", and blue corresponds to "Pantone Coated 2935 C".
If you do not know this specificity, then the flags of several cities and regions may seem like an exact copy. Among them are such cities as Bieberbach an der Risse, Chemnitz, Gryfow Slensky, the Herrera region, Lower Austria and others. Also, a similar flag was until 1918 in the Duchy of Brunswick.
The official color interpretation is blue sky over a yellow wheat field.
History of the Anthem
The state symbols of Ukraine also includes the anthem. History of its writinggoes back to 1862. Then the Ukrainian poet and folklorist Chubinsky wrote the famous poem “Ukraine has not died yet.”
Judging by the recollections of eyewitnesses, the writing was influenced especially by the Serbian national song. Although, upon closer examination, the Ukrainian anthem very much resembles the Polish Dombrovsky March.
Chubinsky's poem was first published in 1863 in a Lvov magazine. Over time, it becomes quite popular in Western Ukraine. It was at this time that Verbitsky became interested in him, who performed this composition for the first time in Przemysl.
From 1917 to 1939 this song was used as the national anthem. In Soviet times, when national Ukrainian symbols were not much welcomed, there was a different composition, to the words of Tychyna, and in 1992 the old anthem was restored.
Similar songs of other nations
As you have seen, the symbols of Ukraine are often similar to the attributes of other nations. Let's give some examples.
The Ukrainian anthem is reminiscent of the Polish anthem "Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła", based on the "Dąbrowski March". The Illyrian Croatian Movement had a similar song - "Još Hrvatska ni propala".
All these compositions are united by one idea - the people's movement in the struggle for independence.
State symbols of the President of Ukraine
State symbols of Ukraine also includes symbols of the head of state. These include the official seal, standard, badge and mace. Let's talk more about each of them.
The presidential standard is a blue canvas, in the center of which is a symbol of Ukraine - a trident. The cloth is made in the form of a square with a gold trim and fringe. Its handle is wooden, and the pommel is in the form of an onyx ball.
Until 1999, it was the only symbol of the president's power. But then the shaft was made very richly and skillfully, and the canvas was simple. Today, the fabric is embroidered on special equipment. On one side, over a million stitches were made with a thread of pure and yellow gold. The trident, in view of the used lining, received volume.
A similar technique was used to create flags in the UK, France and the US.
What is the Ukrainian symbolism of the head of state without the traditional hetman's mace? This insignia is made of gilded silver and decorated with special ornaments and precious stones.
The handle of the seal is decorated with lapis lazuli and resembles a picture of our planet from space. The seal depicts a small coat of arms and the inscription "President of Ukraine".
The badge of the president is made in the form of an order chain with 6 medallions.
Thus, in this article we got acquainted with the Ukrainian state symbols.