After the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, blue fuel has become a popular source of energy for many developed countries. In the long term, several dozen gas exporting countries will benefit from this. In addition, deep processing of natural raw materials is of increasing importance for the global economy, when a variety of products are obtained from it - from fuel to fertilizers and synthetic fiber.
Key production regions
According to most expert organizations, the US is the leader in the production of blue fuel (20% of the world's production), Russia is considered the second (17.6%). In 2009, America for the first time came out on top not only in terms of production, but also in terms of the volume of commercial gas supplied to counterparties, which was associated with an explosive growth in production from shale deposits and a relatively warm winter.
However, among gas exporting countriesThe United States is ranked 8th. Also among the largest gas producing countries are Canada, Iran and Turkmenistan, but their total share in global production is at the level of 14%.
According to some estimates, Russia in 2010 regained its leadership in terms of production after the closure of many US shale deposits, due to falling prices for hydrocarbons. The key Russian region, where the main reserves of blue fuel are concentrated, is the huge basin of Western Siberia. There are two regions in terms of explored reserves in the world: the CIS countries (Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) and Iran.
Main blue fuel traders
There are 45-55 states in the list of countries by export of natural gas, which is due to the lack of sales from some exporters in some years. In addition, it includes, for example, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, which do not have their own deposits, but are engaged in the re-export of Russian hydrocarbon raw materials. The undoubted leader among blue fuel sellers is Russia with approximately 222.6 bcm3, followed by Qatar 118.9 bcm3, and Norway 114.4 bcm 3.
Exporters include the European Union, Canada, the Netherlands and Turkmenistan. Many of them cooperate within the framework of an international organization - the Forum of Gas Exporting Countries. In total, "gas OPEC" unites states with 73% of world reserves and 42% of world production. However, not all of them are ready to create a cartel to regulate prices in the global market. Gas exportcountries of the world is carried out in two ways: for the most part by gas pipelines (75%) and sea gas carriers (25%).
Who sells where
The main producer and consumer of natural gas is North America - about 32% of world consumption. The US uses about 600-650 billion m33 a year. In 2017, the states achieved positive net exports for the first time in years, by boosting LNG pipeline supplies to Mexico. In previous years, the United States filled the blue fuel shortage with purchases from Canada, Algeria and Mexico.
Russia is the main gas exporter to Europe, occupying 30 to 40% of the regional market. In 2017, the Gazprom Group supplied 194.4 bcm3, with Germany, Turkey and Italy becoming the main consumers. In addition, Algeria, the Netherlands and Norway supply gas to the European continent. Asian countries are provided with liquefied gas by Indonesia, Australia and Qatar.