Table of contents:
- The Science of Good and Evil
- Ethics in antiquity
- The concept of morality
- History of Professional Ethics
- Types of professional ethics
- Business ethics
- Communication ethics
It seems that each person has his own pyramid of values created throughout life. In fact, it is laid in the subconscious in childhood. Information received by a child under the age of 6 goes there directly. This also applies to the ethical standards of behavior that children receive by watching the actions of their parents and listening to their conversations.
Ethics is a very ancient concept, aimed at studying the actions of people and their legitimacy, their moral and moral qualities.
The Science of Good and Evil
The word ethika, once used by Aristotle, later became a science, the study and development of which many philosophers of the world devoted themselves to. If the ancient thinker was interested in finding an answer to the question of what underlies human actions, then subsequent generations of sages were interested in the concept of ethics and morality in the pyramid of human values.
Like scienceshe studies:
- what place does morality take in social relations;
- its existing categories;
- main issues.
The concept and subject of ethics relate to the following industries:
- normative indicators, the main study of which is the actions of people from the standpoint of such categories as good and evil;
- metaethics deals with the study of its types;
- applied science of this plan studies individual situations from the standpoint of morality.
Modern ethics is a broader concept than its ancient philosophers imagined. Today, it helps not only to evaluate any actions from the position of correctness, but also awakens the evaluative consciousness in people.
Ethics in antiquity
The sages of antiquity did not distinguish it as a separate scientific discipline, but ranked it among the sections of philosophy and law.
Most of all in those days, she resembled moralizing aphorisms that helped to awaken in people their best and noble character traits. It was Aristotle who singled it out as a separate discipline, placing it between psychology and politics.
In a work called "Eudemic Ethics" Aristotle touches on issues related to human happiness and the causes of its occurrence. The deep reflections of this scientist were aimed at the fact that, in fact, for prosperity, a person needs to have a goal and energy for its implementation. As he believed, disobeying life to achieve it is a great recklessness.
For Aristotle himself, the concept and content of ethicsbecame the foundation for the formation in the minds of his contemporaries of such norms as human virtues. Ancient philosophers attributed justice, morality, morality and others to them.
Even before the appearance of the Greek word ethika, which began to denote a science that studies the morality and legitimacy of people's actions, at different times mankind was interested in questions of good, evil and the meaning of life. They are fundamental today.
The concept of morality
The main criterion for the morality of a person is the ability to distinguish between the concepts of good and evil and the choice of non-violence, love for one's neighbor, following the spiritual laws of goodness.
Sometimes the concepts of "ethics", "morality", "morality" are considered synonymous, denoting the same thing. This is not true. In fact, morality and morality are categories that ethics, as a science, studies. Spiritual laws, designated by people in ancient times, require a person to live according to the rules of honor, conscience, justice, love and kindness. The study and observance of the laws of morality was once monitored by the church, teaching believers the 10 commandments. Today, this is done more at the level of the family and the school where ethics is taught.
A person who practices and propagates spiritual laws has always been called righteous. The concept of ethics of morality is the correspondence of the categories of goodness and love to the actions that a person performs.
Histories are well-known examples of the destruction of strong empires afterthe spiritual values of their peoples were replaced. The most striking example is the destruction of Ancient Rome, a powerful and prosperous empire defeated by barbarians.
Another category that ethics studies is the concept of morality. This is a fundamental value for the development of both people and their relationships.
Morality is the degree of human perfection in such virtues as kindness, justice, honor, freedom and love for the world around. It characterizes the behavior and actions of people from the position of these values and is divided into personal and public.
Public morality is characterized by such signs as:
- compliance with the prohibitions generally accepted for a particular population group or religion (for example, Jews cannot eat pork meat);
- the culture of behavior inherent in this society (for example, in the African Mursi tribe, a plate is inserted into the lips of women, which is completely unacceptable for the peoples of other countries);
- actions prescribed by religious canons (for example, keeping the commandments);
- education in every member of society of such a moral quality as self-sacrifice.
On the basis of moral values, not only interpersonal relations are built, but also between countries and peoples. Wars occur when one of the parties violates the accepted norms that were previously the basis for peaceful coexistence.
History of Professional Ethics
The concept of professional ethics appeared as long ago as the first crafts.The Hippocratic oath known to all doctors, for example, is one of the types of such ancient charters. Soldiers, Olympic athletes, priests, judges, senators and other members of the population had their own ethical standards. Some were stated orally (do not go into a strange monastery with your charter), others were written on tablets or papyri that have survived to this day.
Some of these rules of antiquity today are perceived as recommendations and prohibitions.
More similar to the concept of professional ethics is the guild charter, which was drawn up in the 11-12th centuries in each craft community in its own way. They indicated not only the obligations of each guild worker in relation to colleagues and artels, but also their rights.
Violation of such a charter was followed by exclusion from the community of artisans, which was tantamount to ruin. Such a concept as a merchant's word is well known, which can also be called an example of an oral agreement between representatives of one or different guilds.
Types of professional ethics
The concept and subject of ethics in each profession implies those features of activity that are inherent in this particular work. The moral norms that exist for each profession determine the actions of workers within the framework of accepted rules and procedures.
For example, there is such a thing as medical, legal, economic, military secrets and even confessions. Professional ethics includes not only the moral principles and rules of conduct inherent in any human activity, but alsoindividual team.
If, in case of violation of the work charter, an employee is expected to be administratively punished or dismissed, then if the moral code of the profession is not observed, he can be judged according to the laws of the country. For example, if a he alth worker is convicted of carrying out euthanasia, he will be arrested for murder.
The main types of professional ethics include:
- creative and others.
The main rule in this case is high professionalism and dedication.
The concept of business ethics belongs to the category of professional morality. There are many unwritten (in some cases, they are indicated in the charters of companies) laws that prescribe to businessmen and business people not only the style of dress, but also communication, transactions or record keeping. Only the person who observes the moral standards of honor and decency is called businesslike.
Business ethics is a concept that has been used since people first made a deal. Different countries have their own rules for negotiating, no matter whether it concerns business or diplomatic relations, or places where transactions are made. At all times there were stereotypes of a successful person. In ancient times, these were rich houses, servants or the number of lands and slaves, in our time - expensive accessories, an office in a prestigious area and much more.
Concepts, categories of ethics are the basic postulates of morality that determine the degree of correctness and incorrectness of human actions.
- good is a virtue that embodies everything positive that exists in this world;
- evil is the opposite of good and the general concept of immorality and meanness;
- good – concerns quality of life;
- justice is a category indicating the same rights and equality of people;
- duty - the ability to subordinate one's own interests for the benefit of others;
- conscience is the individual ability of a person to evaluate his actions from the position of good and evil;
- dignity is the assessment of a person's qualities by society.
These are far from all the categories that this science studies.
The concept of communication ethics includes the skills of establishing communication with other people. This branch of science deals with the study of the level of human culture through his speech, the quality and usefulness of the information he presents, his moral and moral values.