Soviet submarines of project 667

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Soviet submarines of project 667
Soviet submarines of project 667
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Nuclear-powered submarines equipped with nuclear missiles during the Cold War were one of the deterrents that saved humanity from the horrors of a hot war. In the competition between the two superpowers of that time - the USA and the USSR, which possessed the so-called "triads" of nuclear weapons - submarines played a crucial role.

drawing diagram of the first series

Brief history of creation

The term "arms race" can be understood almost literally - both countries were chasing each other in an effort to keep up and prevent even the slightest superiority of their potential enemy. This was especially true of strategic weapons, which included nuclear submarines. Work on the creation of the Soviet submarine project 667 began in 1958 in response to the American project Lafayette, which provides for the implementation of a large-scale program to create a series of submarines equipped with nuclear weapons. By analogy with the Americans, each Soviet missile submarine was supposed to have 16 launchers. ATIn the course of design work, the originally conceived design, which involved mounting missiles outside the hull and equipping the boats with turning devices that transfer missiles from traveling to combat position, was rejected and replaced with vertical launch shafts located inside the strong hull of the boat.

General Effect

Khrushchev. During the demonstration, this mechanism did not work, and the rockets got stuck in an intermediate tilt, failing to go into firing position. top view on a hike

Construction of the first submarine

The timing of the construction and testing of the first sample of the project 667 submarine is amazing. She received the designation project 667A. Being laid on a slipway in Severodvinsk at the end of 1964, she was launched already in August 1966, and entered into service the following year. The submarine was named "Leninets" and received the designation K-137. At present, such rates are unthinkable, even for conventional surface ships, not to mention submarines, which often take decades to build.

moray eel model

Serial production

The development of the production of Project 667 submarines was also carried out at an accelerated pace. The boats were produced at two factories, in Severodvinsk and in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The pace of production was also impressive. In 1967, they were adoptedone boat, in 1968 - already four, a year later - five. Since 1969, a plant in the Far East has also joined Severodvinsk. The Soviet Union once again tried to catch up with the Americans, who had already built 31 nuclear submarines by the end of the 60s.

Design

The Project 667 submarine had a traditional double-hull design for that time, the depth rudders were located on the wheelhouse, the missile silos were behind the wheelhouse in the hull. The nuclear-powered ship was armed with 16 launchers with R-27 ballistic missiles, equipped with nuclear warheads of 1 megaton each and a range of 2,500 km. The power plant was represented by two autonomous units with a total capacity of 5200 horsepower, which made it possible to develop an underwater speed of up to 28 knots. An interesting fact: the Americans, who did not expect such a "quick" from the Soviet industry, gave the unofficial name of this boat "Yankee". In our fleet, the Project 667 nuclear submarine Azuha also got its unofficial name, obviously because of the abbreviation AZ - automatic protection, first introduced on this boat.

boat in ice

Design development

In the early 1970s, as part of the logic of the arms race, the United States introduced a fairly effective system of hydroacoustic location of submarines, which made the location of Soviet submarines on combat duty near the coast of North America clearly visible. As a result, it became necessary to move the boundaries of combat duty away from the shores of a potential enemy, but for this it was necessary to increaserange of missile weapons. This is how Project 667 B submarines appeared, which received the designation Murena.

These submarines were equipped with R-29 missiles, which had an intercontinental firing range and, unlike the R-27, were two-stage. The rocket had a much larger size. Accordingly, the design of the submarine was changed. The length and especially the height of the boat increased somewhat due to the characteristic protrusion behind the wheelhouse, similar to a hump. Of the 16 missiles that were previously available, only 12 remained, but with a greater charge capacity.

squid ryazan

Last series of submarines

The development of the design and combat capabilities of the Project 667 submarine took place continuously and constantly. Weapons systems, navigation systems, radio communications, fire control systems, as well as main and auxiliary power plants were improved, work was carried out to reduce visibility, noise and increase combat survivability. The submarine cruisers of this series were produced, in addition to the already mentioned projects 667A Navaga and 667B Murena, also under the letters AU Burbot, AM Navaga-M, M Andromeda, AT Pear, BDR Kalmar, DB "Dolphin".

The last series of this type of submarines were BDRM boats. The first drawings of Project 667 BDRM submarines appeared in the mid-70s. The quantity and quality of changes brought the boat to the 3rd generation of nuclear missile carriers. These boats are still in the active composition of the Russian submarine fleet. Equipped with intercontinental ballistic missiles R-27RM and R-27RMU2 "Sineva",with a range of up to 8300 km, Project 667 BDRM submarines continue to be an effective tool for deterring a potential aggressor. The first boat of this series was laid down in 1981 and entered the Navy at the end of 1984. A total of 7 submarines of project 667 BDRM were built, one of which was converted into a carrier of small underwater vehicles.

Peaceful and military service

Twice satellites were launched from a Project 667 BDRM submarine, and one of these satellites was made in Germany. The boats are almost constantly on combat duty, carry out firing practice, mainly from the Barents Sea, and make autonomous crossings, including through the North Pole.

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