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Moscow's climate is characterized by moderate continentality, pronounced seasonality, and average humidity. Winters are moderately cold and severe frosts are rare. Summers are moderate, usually without extreme heat and drought. All this makes the Moscow climate favorable for human habitation. The wind rose in Moscow is determined by the geographical location and terrain conditions.
The most significant climate-forming factor, in addition to latitude, is the west-east transfer of air masses, which determines the frequent change of cyclones and anticyclones. They are also associated with rapid temperature changes. The daily temperature range is quite significant. The average temperature for the year is +5, 8°C. The wind rose in Moscow and the Moscow region is much more repetitive of western directions than eastern ones.
The average annual wind speed is 2.3 m/s. In areas with the most dense housing development, itsignificantly lower, windless weather is often observed. In the cold period of the year, the average wind speed is higher than in the warm period by about 1 m/s. In summer, more significant winds are observed during the day. This is due to the growing instability of the atmosphere, uneven heating of the earth's surface.
The wind rose of the city of Moscow is due to its geographical location. The annual frequency of western winds is much higher than that of eastern ones. Obviously, this is due to the prevailing west-east transfer of air masses and the presence of the Ural Mountains in the east. East winds are the least common. Rarely, but a little more often, northeasterly winds occur. Further, in order of increasing frequency, the winds of the north, southeast, south, west, southwest and northwest directions follow. At the same time, southwestern winds are the most frequent in winter, and northwestern winds are most frequent in summer. Thus, the wind rose in Moscow is quite specific.
The strongest winds occur during the passage of a cold atmospheric front and have the character of squalls. Sometimes they cause serious damage. In addition to wind, cold fronts are accompanied by intense precipitation in the form of rain or snow, and sometimes hail, as well as thunderstorms and very powerful clouds that have a low base and a large thickness. In isolated cases, tornadoes may occur. The maximum wind speed during such processes in Moscow is 30-40 m/s. During a tornado, it can reach 70 - 80 m/s. Such a tornadowas observed in the city on 1904-29-06 during the passage of a warm front through it.
The presence of urban development slows down, complicates, and sometimes enhances (corridor effect) the air flow. There is turbulence, impetuousness. This wind is unpredictable. It can be practically absent, and then suddenly swoop in in the form of a rush, touching one part of the territory and bypassing another.
Moscow ecology and wind rose
The location of polluting objects and the wind rose affect the distribution of pollution intensity throughout the city. In the center of Moscow, its level is high in any wind direction, since the center is surrounded by the city from all sides, and there is a lot of transport there.
The presence of large industrial zones and the unfavorable wind rose make the Pechatniki district one of the dirtiest in the capital. The Kapotnya area also has an unfavorable wind rose, is located next to the thermal power plant, the Moscow Oil Refinery and the Moscow Ring Road.
The districts of Lyublino and Brateevo are also very dirty, due to the proximity of a thermal power plant, the Moscow Ring Road and other sources of pollution. The situation is also aggravated by the wind rose. All this indicates a great influence of the wind regime on the ecology of various districts of the capital.
Wind rose in Moscow varies by season and consists in the predominance of westerly winds. It also affects the level of air pollution in different areas of the capital.