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Environmental pollution is one of the most important problems of mankind. It is on how carefully we treat nature and air that the fate of our planet and humanity depends. Of particular concern are the territories where the largest industrial centers are located. In our country, the environmental problems of the Krasnoyarsk Territory occupy a leading position. This area is very vulnerable because of the enterprises located on it. Let's figure out what environmental problems of the Krasnoyarsk Territory currently exist and how they are eliminated.
Ecological state of the region
This subject of the Russian Federation is a leader in many respects. It has the largest area and concentration of minerals, it is responsible for their extraction on a large scale. There are deposits of coal and nickel, graphite and quartz sands, all kinds of ores. The region is also engaged in logging, because more than half of the territory is covered by forests.
If we briefly describe the environmental problems of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, we can say that the main one isthe functioning of hazardous industries that pollute the air, dump waste into the water. This is exacerbated by the fact that these plants (2/3 of them) are located in the region's most densely populated cities: Krasnoyarsk and Norilsk.
Another problem is deforestation, which are not only natural air purifiers, but also habitats for living organisms. Proper attention is not paid to plantings in cities.
All this made it possible to bring the region into the top three in Russia with the highest environmental pollution. Let us examine in detail the environmental problems of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
Good clean air is vital for everyone. Unfortunately, the inhabitants of the Krasnoyarsk Territory have only to dream of such a thing. After all, large industrial enterprises clog it with frightening speed. The figure characterizing emissions into the atmosphere is catastrophically growing. It has almost doubled since 2000.
Most of all, metallurgical enterprises, such as the Norilsk Combine, a plant located in Krasnoyarsk, are to blame for this. Here, in close proximity to residential areas, there is an aluminum processing plant. By the way, the largest enterprises have well-established measures to minimize emissions into the environment. Basically, small and medium-sized plants “sin” by violating the norms. They do not have the opportunity to attract environmentalists to the staff.
The worst thing is that for ordinary people all these emissions are almost imperceptible, while half of the periodic table is in the air, includingincluding harmful ammonia, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and others.
The last of the listed components is a product that pollutes the air with motor vehicles. Its concentration is especially high in large cities, and it is growing every year. This is due to the improvement in the welfare of the population and increasing freight traffic.
Ecological problems of water bodies in the Krasnoyarsk Territory are also very large-scale. There are several thousand lakes with fresh water, and rivers also flow through the territory, which are used to build power plants.
Unfortunately, enterprises operating in this subject, in addition to air, also pollute water. We are talking about the release of life-threatening elements into it, such as lead or zinc. Wastewater from factories and factories is not sufficiently treated, just as sewage is poorly treated. As a result, the quality of fresh water is deteriorating, on the purity and uninterrupted supply of which life in the region depends.
In addition to the fact that polluted wastewater is thrown out, it is also insufficiently cooled, which leads to the death of the ecosystem of water bodies. So, in 2011, a case was recorded when an enterprise threw water at a temperature of 40 degrees into the Yenisei. This caused serious damage to the ecosystem: plankton and, as a result, fish died in a large area. Krasnoyarsk heating networks turned out to be the culprit.
Soil and forests
Ecological problems of the Krasnoyarsk Territory are also connected with the state of the soil. They get dirtyin two ways: in direct contact with the source (when poisonous substances are released), poisons can also enter through the air. After all, they are heavier and able to settle on the ground. Thus, the land cover contains lead, zinc and other heavy metals.
Another problem is waterlogging and acidification of soils, they also contain a large amount of s alt.
Environmental problems of the Krasnoyarsk Territory with land resources are inextricably linked with the state of forests.
After all, plants and shrubs are not able to grow on polluted soil. As a result, forest areas are shrinking: conifers, mosses and lichens are the first to suffer.
In addition, the environmental problems of the Krasnoyarsk Territory are associated with the storage of 105 million tons of industrial waste. Of these, a certain proportion falls on the 1st and 2nd hazard class (the most poisonous). Of these, more than 20 million tons are stored in close proximity to residential areas. As a rule, this process is carried out in violation of the norms, which can lead to an environmental disaster.
It should be said about the most polluted cities in the region. First of all, this is Norilsk. This administrative center is the most polluted city in our country, it also occupies a leading position in world statistics.
The reason for everything is the plant, which mines and processes metal at the same time. The whole city is immersed insmog. The situation is aggravated by the fact that it is located in the Arctic zone, the meager nature of which is unable to cope with colossal emissions.
Krasnoyarsk is slightly inferior to Norilsk. Here there is air pollution (smog is especially noticeable on warm days), soil (mainly arsenic) and water (chemical enterprises located in the immediate vicinity of the city are to blame for this).
Solving the environmental problems of the Krasnoyarsk Territory largely depends on the inhabitants of the region themselves, their vigilance.
Another way out of such a catastrophic situation is the development of environmentally friendly industries that are not accompanied by harmful emissions.
Special attention should be paid to forests, the so-called "light" - they are able to purify the air from harmful elements.
The legal regulation of the environmental situation is also being developed.