- Origins of the city
- From Chersonese to Kherson
- Foundation of the reserve
- Reserve for high minds
- Interesting Chersonese
- Chersonese Theater
- Sights of Chersonese
- Reviews and opinions of tourists
Tauric Chersonesos – that was the name of the city, which was founded by ancient Greek colonists more than two and a half thousand years ago. The settlement was built in the southwestern part of the Crimean peninsula. Today the ruins of this settlement are a landmark of Sevastopol. But those people who first arrive in the capital of Crimea, first of all visit the Dolphinarium, Panorama, the Museum of the Black Sea Fleet and the Aquarium, and only after that they go to ancient Chersonese. But having arrived in Sevastopol for the second time, tourists immediately go to Chersonese, where they have the opportunity to enjoy historical monuments all day long, forgetting about the existence of civilization.
Origins of the city
Future Tauric Chersonesos at the very beginning was a small village glued to one of the shores of the bay, which is now called Karantinnaya. Arriving on the peninsula, the colonists brought with them weapons, food supplies, and household utensils. They also took clothes, tools, and possibly livestock. Landed on the coastQuarantine, the colonists settled down next to the bay, setting up tents not far from their ships. They also built temporary housing for themselves. These were dugouts and huts. After that, the newly arrived people started building permanent shelters.
Chersonese (photos are presented in our article) subsequently spread to a fairly large territory. But the site on this shore of the bay was and is the most comfortable for living. After all, nature itself has prepared the Quarantine as a place used for parking ships. And therefore, at the beginning of the life of the settlers here, the bay was of incredible importance. It was the only road that connected them with their homeland and a source of food supplies (fishing). Another fact, which makes this area considered the best, is that it is protected from the influence of cold winds from the northeast and from the north by a hill. Ancient Chersonese at an early stage occupied no more than four hectares of area. Its population was approximately one thousand and a half people.
From Chersonese to Kherson
The very name "Chersonese" is translated from Greek as "peninsula". "Taurian" means the one that is in Taurica, in the lands of the Taurians. And the Taurians themselves were members of a warlike tribe, which had a bad reputation. These people fought constantly and were extremely ferocious. Their homeland was modern Crimea. Chersonesos was surrounded by Taurians from almost all sides.
The city-state of Chersonesos existed for nearly two thousand years. And his life story isattitude not only to Ukraine, but also to such countries as Byzantium, Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece. Tauric Chersonesus was founded as a colony of the rich and famous Greek city of Heraclea Pontica. Therefore, Hellenic customs and traditions took place in its culture for a long time. He also had the title of a trading settlement, and also waged military operations with the Bosporan kingdom and with the Scythians.
In the Middle Ages, Chersonese was renamed Kherson, although the name Korsun is found in the manuscripts of Ancient Russia. For a thousand years, Chersonese (photo above) was part of the all-powerful Byzantine Empire. Therefore, the city became the Christian capital of the entire Crimean peninsula. And in 1399 Kherson was plundered and burned by the army of Khan Edigei.
Foundation of the reserve
In 1892, where Chersonese was located (the map is further), an archaeological museum was established. And in 1994, by decree of the then President of Ukraine, he was given the status of the national reserve "Tauric Chersonesus". The reserve is located on an area of 500 hectares. And every year it is visited by three hundred thousand people. The main tasks of the museum include:
- Research of a scientific nature.
- Restoration of cultural and architectural monuments.
- Creating conditions for recreation and tourism.
- Effective and sustainable use of existing heritage.
The reserve "Tauric Chersonese" has at its disposal a site of ancient settlement, which belongs to the V century. BC e. -XV Art. n. e., a medieval fortress, the fortress of Chembalo, which is located in Balaklava and belongs to the XIII-XVIII centuries. In addition, there are also one-of-a-kind ancient village estates and allotments that demonstrate the first Archaeological Park on the territory of Ukraine.
Reserve for high minds
Each of the departments of the institution boasts highly qualified specialists who are the real enthusiasts of what they do. Among the employees of the reserve, there are six candidates of historical sciences, and ten people are just getting ready for the process of defending their scientific works. The national reserve "Chersonese Tauride" is under the leadership of the general director Leonid Vasilyevich Marchenko. He has the title of Honored Worker of Culture of the Ukrainian State and a PhD in History.
Due to the presence of unique monuments and trained staff, Chersonese has become a base for students and apprentices to practice. So, at one time, students from institutes and universities of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkov and Kyiv took practical courses here.
Chersonesus Tauride is of considerable interest to specialists from foreign countries. Thus, articles and notes about the ancient city often appear in the publications of these countries, and at international conferences one can often hear reports on research conducted in this city.
It was in this settlement that those who were against the policy of the rulers of Constantinople were once in exile. Among these people were the self-proclaimed offspring of Roman IV, the rival of Justinian II Philippic Vardanus and, in fact, Justinian II himself, as well as Pope Martin. There is an ancient theater in Chersonesus, which is the only one of its kind in the territory of the entire SND. The city of Kherson was so named by Empress Catherine II in honor of the ancient Chersonese.
Crimea Khersones, as already mentioned, became the owner of the ancient theater, which was built at the turn of the III-IV centuries. The theater could accommodate more than one thousand spectators at the same time. When Chersonese was under the rule of ancient rulers, the theater was used as an arena for gladiator fights. When Christianity became the main religion in the Roman Empire, all performances were banned here. And a couple of luxurious temples were built on the ruins of the theater.
Sights of Chersonese
Among the monuments of the ancient city, deserving the attention of everyone and everyone, one can name the misty bell. It was cast in 1778. For its manufacture, Turkish captured cannons were used. The task of the bell was to warn of ships that sailed past the coast in bad weather. When the Crimean War took place, the attraction was taken to the capital of France. Only in 1913 the fog bell was returned to its rightful place.
Symbol of Chersoneseconsidered a "great basilica". It was the first local temple built in the sixth century. Then the emperor of Byzantium, Justinian I, ruled the city. The floor of the church was covered with mosaics. Already in the 10th century, a new temple was built on the ruins of the previous basilica. For the construction of this church, the architects used the ruins of the old temple. Marble was used to make the columns of the building, and they weighed approximately 350 kilograms.
Reviews and opinions of tourists
Those who were lucky enough to visit the unique and unsurpassed Chersonese say that the unique historical finds provide an opportunity to touch the ancient civilizations and soak up their spirit. After all, the history of more than one state here can be read on every stone. Tourists claim that Chersonesos is like a time machine that takes people to the times of conquests, gladiator fights and the first theatrical performances.