Russian cultural space: structure, formation, development

Russian cultural space: structure, formation, development
Russian cultural space: structure, formation, development
Anonim

The system of cultural space is an association of vital, social, educational and cultural spheres of society. It is a "receptacle", that is, an internal volume in which cultural processes take place. It is one of the most important factors in human existence.

The unified cultural space in our country has a territorial extent, in which the outlines of the capital, cultural centers and provinces, cities and rural settlements are visible. Russia is a grandiose ensemble consisting of peoples who are united by a common territory, citizenship and centuries-old traditions. What the system of cultural space is built of will be discussed.

Based on a unified policy

Folk dance culture

Based on what is the cultural space built on? The space of culture is built on the basis of the policy pursued by the state in this area; based on the formation of common economic and legal conditions for the development of different peoples.

For the first time, such a policy began to be implemented from the end19th century both on the territory of the state and at the interstate level. It was carried out in accordance with the developed concept, adopted laws and signed agreements.

This policy is aimed at the open development of cultural-national autonomies, as well as societies and organizations. It involves the mutual exchange of cultural events and provides opportunities for the development of amateur creativity and professional art.

Single cultural and educational space

It is considered as one of the principles of state and international policy in the field of education. It is carried out when organizing the process of education in heterogeneous territories or in states where different historical, economic, religious, national and political conditions and traditions have developed.

According to this principle, education is considered in two aspects. On the one hand, as a cultural phenomenon, as a means necessary for a particular people to develop their own original culture. On the other hand, it is one of the means of social protection of people, as well as a means to ensure civil rights and freedoms.

The unified cultural and educational space is formed on the basis of the development of a unified development strategy, the creation of a unified information system. It also provides for the same rights, normative and substantive framework, uniform rules for admission to educational institutions.

Strategic role

European space

This principle was born ineducational and cultural space of Europe at the end of the 20th century, when the European Union was being created. With the help of its application, the convertibility of certificates and diplomas between states, the continuity of the content of education was ensured. Uniform conditions were provided for receiving and continuing education, and for getting a job when moving from one country to another.

This principle turned out to be relevant for Russia as well and was accepted during the perestroika period. Through its use, it was possible to restrain the separatist principles inherent at that time in the policy of the regions towards the center. He contributed to the preservation of education as a state, social and cultural system. In Russia of the 21st century, it is very important to preserve the unity of peoples and territories, the Russian consciousness, a common cultural principle and spiritual closeness, the state language.

Unique pattern

national culture

The cultural space of our country is a symbiosis of the cultures of its constituent peoples and nationalities. It unites them and draws a unique pattern consisting of original manifestations, while preserving the uniqueness of cultures, enhancing their attractive power and powerful energy.

This space includes:

  • national-ethnic languages ​​of communication;
  • traditional forms of economic and domestic life;
  • folk cuisine recipes;
  • techniques for educating the younger generation;
  • monuments - architectural and artistic;
  • centersprofessional and folk art located in the regions;
  • religious denominations;
  • historical cultural landscapes;
  • natural reserves;
  • places of memorable historical events;
  • museum cities;
  • complexes of education and science at universities.

There are different approaches regarding the infrastructure of the Russian cultural space. This is a kind of registration of our national treasure. But not enough is known about it yet, and there is a large field of activity for researchers here.

Unity and Diversity

The cultural space of Russia is multidimensional, and it is impossible to unify it. Nevertheless, in history, under the slogan of overcoming differences, many attempts were made to create a so-called universal culture. But such an experiment, as you know, ended in failure.

The reason for this, among other things, is that culture cannot be one-dimensional, universal, uniform at all times and for all peoples. Such an approach is in conflict with her nature and essence, and she "resists" such experiments, even if the actions of their initiators are based on good intentions.

The nature of culture is dual, it exists as a "fractional set", which is combined into an integral system. All regions are interconnected and interdependent, complementing each other.

Two models of existence

The cultural space system can function in two opposite directions.

  • The first of the functions is collective, which promotes national, state, social unification and cohesion.
  • The second one is dissipating, reducing the forces of attraction of the regions, making them closed and isolated. It greatly slows down and weakens the ability of peoples to integrate, the desire to find mutual understanding.

What will change lead to?

Pluralism in culture

Modernization and social reforms carried out in Russia have had a significant impact on the state of its culture and on the prospects for its development. Some of its spheres fell apart by themselves; others were liquidated; still others, having lost the support of the state, were forced to try to survive at their own peril and risk; the fourth received a new status and built new priorities.

Today culture has freed itself from the pressure of strict ideological control. But she was overtaken by a new vice - financial dependence. Today it is difficult to determine what exactly the consequences of the changes will be, how they will affect the value orientation of people, and young people in particular.

Tree of Life

Russian province

Today, the formation of cultural space is proceeding according to a pluralistic model of development. It combines factors such as:

  1. Historical continuity.
  2. Continuity of development.
  3. Discreteness (separation, the opposite of continuity).

This space was created by the historical activity of people over many centuries. Hiscan be compared with the tree of life, which has very deep roots and a branched crown. In a sense, it is likened to nature itself, which suggests an infinite variety of combinations.

Plurality is observed in all cultural forms. This applies even to the language, where such general concepts as vocabulary, the laws by which phrases are built are predominant. However, there is a large number of dialects, slang, and slang. And also there is a semantic variety, different intonations and connotations.

The combination of the special with the universal, the unique with the similar is the basis for the diversity and diversity of the cultural space.

Isolationism is dangerous

However, it would be wrong to represent the space of culture as a "patchwork quilt", in which each piece is different in color and shape. With all its diversity, it has a common configuration, thanks to which its purpose is fulfilled.

Features of individual regions fit into the overall volume and architectonics. Diversity is dictated by the uniqueness and color of individual areas. Just like unification, isolationism is dangerous, it erases cultural identity. Due to the artificial separation, the cultural sphere narrows, thereby causing irreparable damage to the spiritual development of the people.

Therefore, cultural contacts are a vital necessity. They represent a living, natural dialogue between different cultures, carried out on different occasions and everywhere. It is conducted both on weekdays and on holidays, since it is basedlies a mutual interest in the manifestations of culture, the desire for interaction and understanding.

The need to maintain dialogue

However, dialogue does not always happen spontaneously. He needs a lot of attention and support. At the same time, it is necessary to explain the existence of differences and overcome the arrogant ex altation of some cultures and the neglect of others.

Otherwise, the possibility of a conflict of cultures increases, which grows like a snowball and captures new and new areas of personal and public life. The division of the cultural space into friends and foes turns into mutual hostility, squabbles, quarrels and weakening cooperation.

In such a situation, a relationship based on hostility can turn into combustible material that will provoke psychological and social aggression. In this regard, the importance of cultural policy, which promotes the dialogue between cultures in every possible way, is greatly increased.

Center of gravity

Petersburg - the center of attraction

In each region, in the north or south, in the west or in the east, the cultural space has its own centers of gravity and its own territories of influence. This finds expression in the building styles in cities and rural areas, in the way of life and the rhythm of life, in the observance of local customs and various rituals, in the features of meetings and holidays, in the ways of communication and interests, in values ​​and preferences.

One of these centers of attraction is St. Petersburg. Historically, it has developed asmultinational formation, and each of its ethnic groups participated in the creation of a common Petersburg style. The well-known Soviet and Russian culturologist Yu. M. Lotman in one of his works wrote about the multitude of images and comparisons inherent in the cultural capital. He viewed the city at the same time as:

  • Russian Amsterdam or Russian Venice;
  • the city of Pushkin and Gogol, Blok and Dostoevsky, Brodsky and Akhmatova;
  • the imperial residence and the "cradle of the revolution";
  • the courageous hero of the blockade and the center of culture, science, art.

These "different cities" are in a common cultural space. St. Petersburg has become a city of cultural and iconic contrasts, which paved the way for the most intense intellectual life. In this regard, it can be considered a unique phenomenon of the entire world civilization.

Dynamism of cultural space

Byzantine influence

Among other things, it is found in waves of cultural contacts that emanate from internal or external regions. Byzantine, Mongol-Tatar, French, German, American, Chinese influence left a noticeable mark in the culture of Russia.

Such an influence can affect areas that at first glance are autonomous, whether it be technology innovations, clothing fashion, product advertising, dog breeds, "overseas" products, city signs, office decoration.

However, in the end, all this affects the change in the appearance, and sometimes even the "face" of the cultural space. Penetration of other cultures everywhereentails a whole range of changes, sometimes long-term, sometimes short-term. Over time, many borrowings begin to be perceived as their own achievements.

Due to such a property of culture as its integrity, any influence cannot pass without a trace. It entails many changes in other, at first glance, distant cultural spheres. At the same time, both the way of thinking and the way of life change, and new features are created in the image of a person.

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