Biodiversity decline: causes and consequences. Biodiversity

Biodiversity decline: causes and consequences. Biodiversity
Biodiversity decline: causes and consequences. Biodiversity
Anonim

Environmentalists are sounding the alarm about the catastrophic reduction of biodiversity on our planet, associated with the activities of modern man, who for the most part, living in the city, practically does not encounter nature, has no idea about its diversity and can only see it on TV. This makes him feel that biodiversity is not part of everyday life, but it is not.

biodiversity decline

What is biodiversity?

The term biodiversity is commonly understood by scientists as the diversity of life on Earth - plants, animals, insects, fungi, bacteria and the ecosystems they form. In this concept, there is also a relationship that is present between them. Biodiversity can leak:

  • at the level of genes, determines the variability of individuals of a certain species;
  • at the species level, reflects the diversity of species (plants, animals,fungi, microorganisms);
  • diversity of ecological systems (ecosystems), this includes differences between them and different conditions (habitat, ecological processes).

It should be taken into account that all the above types of diversity are interconnected. Many ecosystems and different landscapes create conditions for the emergence of new species, genetic diversity makes it possible to change within one species. The reduction of biodiversity indicates certain violations of these processes.

Currently, environmentalists are sounding the alarm due to the fact that human beings are violating living conditions, ecological processes, man is creating new species of plants and animals at the gene level. How this will affect future life on Earth is unknown. After all, everything in nature is interconnected. This is the so-called "butterfly effect". The science fiction writer Ray Bradbury told the world about him in his story "Thunder Came" back in the middle of the last century.

biodiversity

Impossibility of life without biodiversity

The most valuable and important thing that exists on earth is biological diversity. Whether we know about it or not, but our whole life depends on the biological we alth of the earth, since animals and vegetation give it to us. Thanks to plants, we get enough oxygen, and materials based on them give us not only food, but also wood, paper, fabrics.

In our technogenic age, a huge amount of energy is needed, obtained by burning fuel, which is produced from oil formed inthe result of the decomposition of the remains of many organisms, plants. Human life without biodiversity is impossible.

When we go to the store, we buy food packaged in bags, with little regard for where it comes from. The life of the majority of the population takes place in an artificial environment, which is made up of asph alt, concrete, metal and artificial materials, but this does not mean that the consequences of biodiversity reduction will bypass humanity.

causes of biodiversity decline

Life on Earth and its diversity

The history of the planet Earth suggests that at various times it was inhabited by many living organisms, most of which, as a result of evolution, died out and gave way to new species. This was facilitated by conditions and reasons, but even during periods of natural stagnation, there was no reduction in biodiversity, the diversity of biological species increased.

Nature is designed in such a way that everything in it is in interaction. No species of living organisms can live and develop in a closed environment. This was shown by numerous experiments on the creation of isolated biosystems that suffered a complete collapse.

Modern scientists have described and studied 1.4 million species of living organisms, but according to calculations, there are from 5 to 30 million species on Earth that live and develop depending on conditions. This happens naturally. Living organisms populated the entire planet. They live in water, air, and land. They can be found in the desert and in the Northern and Southern belts. Nature provides everything you need tocontinue life on Earth.

With the help of living organisms, the nitrogen and carbon cycle takes place, which, in turn, supports the renewal and processing of natural resources. The life-friendly environment created by the Earth's atmosphere is also regulated by living organisms.

reduction of biodiversity on the planet

What contributes to the reduction of biodiversity?

First of all, the reduction of forest areas. As mentioned above, plants play a very important role in the life of the planet. The taiga and the jungle are called the lungs of the planet, thanks to them it receives a sufficient amount of oxygen. In addition, more than half of the species of living organisms exist in the jungle, which occupies only 6% of the earth's surface. They are called the genetic fund accumulated over 100 million years of evolution on Earth. Its loss will be irreplaceable and could lead to a complete ecological disaster for the planet.

The reasons for the decline in biodiversity are human activities that transform the planet in order to meet their own, not always reasonably increased, needs. Uncontrolled deforestation of taiga and jungles leads to the disappearance of many species of life, even unstudied and not described by man, to disruption of ecosystems and water balance.

This is facilitated by deforestation and burning, harvesting of various types of plants and fishing carried out in predatory sizes, the use of pesticides, the drainage of swamps, the death of coral reefs and the cutting down of mangroves, an increase in the number of agricultural lands and the area of ​​\u200b\u200bpopulationitems.

It is clear that the development of technology, technological progress cannot be stopped. But steps must be taken to address the environmental challenges of biodiversity loss.

environmental problems reduction of biodiversity

International Convention on Biological Diversity

For this purpose, the “Convention on Biological Diversity” was adopted, which was signed by 181 countries, whose governments have committed themselves to conserve it in their countries, have pledged to act jointly with other states and share the benefits of using genetic resources.

But this has not prevented the reduction of biodiversity on the planet. The ecological situation on Earth is becoming more threatening than ever. But there is hope that the common sense that God has given to man will prevail.

consequences of biodiversity loss

Evolution is the engine of life

The engine of life forward is evolution, as a result of which some species die out and new ones appear. All modern living creatures have replaced the extinct ones, and, as scientists have calculated, of the entire variety of species that existed on Earth, their current number is only 1% of their total number.

The extinction of species is a natural moment of evolution, but the current rate of biodiversity reduction on the planet is rampant, there is a violation of natural self-regulation and this has become one of the most important environmental problems of mankind.

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The role of the species in the biosphere

Knowledge of mankind about the role played by representatives of a particular species in the biosphere, is negligible. But scientists know for certain that each species has a certain meaning in nature. The disappearance of one species and the inability to replace it with a new one can lead to a chain reaction that will lead to the extinction of man.

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Needed actions

First of all, humanity must try to save the rainforests. Thus, leaving the opportunity to save some species of living beings and plants from extinction. Preservation of the jungle will lead to climate stabilization.

The jungle is a direct source of the richest genetic material, a treasury of various types of living beings. In addition, it is a source of plants, on the basis of which a person creates unique medicines. By moistening the atmosphere, tropical forests prevent global climate change.

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