- General information
- Plant and animal life
- Drainage basin and geography
- Coastal life
- Interesting cities on the banks of the Western Bug
If the definition of a person's professions is applied to the river, then the Western Bug is a warrior and a border guard. Almost along its entire length, which is 772 kilometers, the water separates the borders of three states - Ukraine, Belarus and Poland. During its centuries-old history, the ancient shores saw the soldiers of Boleslav the Brave, the crossing of the Mongol-Tatars and the campaign of Napoleon's troops. Large boulders on the banks deposited two world wars. Small grains of sand from border conflicts were washed away from their banks. Only the sky is reflected in a clear stream, and each new day begins with a clean slate. Because you can't step in the same river twice.
Podolsk upland of Western Ukraine. Here begins the Western Bug. Winding channel with a width at the source of 5-10 meters. Further, gaining strength and current, the width of the water surface reaches 60–70 meters,and in some places reaches up to 300 m. The drainage basin has an area of more than 70 thousand km2. Freezing on the Western Bug lasts from the second half of December to the end of March. High water levels from 3 to 6 meters are recorded along the entire length of the river. The tributaries of the Western Bug - Mukhavets, Poltva, Rata, etc. - have a dense flat channel network. They are an important element of land reclamation work.
Plant and animal life
The flat nature of the area on which the river flows determined the characteristic features of the flora of its banks. It is dominated by mixed deciduous and coniferous forests. The shores of the Western Bug have become an ideal place for the organization of natural reserves and reserves, which preserve the pristine beauty of these places.
On the territory of Ukraine - the landscape reserve "Bistryaki" and the zoological reserve "Bug". The Republic of Belarus occupies a special place in the conservation of the flora and fauna of the coastal region. The Western Bug and its tributary - the Mukhavets - in the western section are closely adjacent to the territory of the unique natural complex of the Belarusian Polesye. The natural significance of this place is such that it can significantly affect the ecological situation throughout Europe.
Migratory routes of water birds from Europe to the north of Russia ran through these places for centuries. Geese, wigeons, turukhtans from ancient times have chosen the Pribuzhsky Polissya for rest during long-distance flights. A natural biosphere reserve has been created here, in which favorable conditions are organized for the conservation of rare species.animals and birds. Roller and serpent eagle, European mink and lynx - all these animal species disappearing in the central part of Europe have found habitats on the lands adjacent to the Western Bug.
More than 500 kilometers the river flows through the territory of Poland. It has become a natural border separating Poland from Ukraine and Belarus. The coastal town of Zosin is the furthest southeast Polish settlement.
Due to the great length of the river in Poland, many nature reserves have been organized on its banks. Nadbuzhany Landscape Park (Nadbużański Park Krajobrazowy) can be especially distinguished. Its area is 139 thousand hectares, and together with the nature protection zone - more than 222 thousand hectares. This is the largest landscape park in Poland.
More than 1300 species grow in the reserve, among which there are rare protected plants. Roe deer, deer, wild boars, otters, and beavers live in the park. The shores of the Western Bug are especially attractive for birds, among which there are often protected "Red Book" species. Although not common, the Common Honey Buzzard, Lesser Spotted Eagle, Kestrel or Sparrowhawk can be found here.
Drainage basin and geography
The Western Bug River Basin is a transboundary water area that belongs to a tributary of the B altic Sea and contains approximately 20% of the Vistula drainage basin. Geographically located in three states. The largest part of the basin surface is located in four voivodships of Poland (47%) -Lublin, Mazowiecki, Podlasie and Podkarpackie. The remaining territory was divided in almost equal shares by the Lviv and Volyn regions of Ukraine (27%) and the Brest region of Belarus (26%).
On the territory of Ukraine, the source of the Western Bug has a length of 185 km and is located in a mountainous area. In the middle reaches, water for 363 km serves as a natural border between the Republic of Poland on the one hand and Ukraine and Belarus on the other. The final section (224 km) is located in Poland and ends in the area of the Zagrzyn reservoir and the Narew river, where the Western Bug flows into.
The course of the central part is accompanied by the formation of a large group of lakes. On the Polish side, this is the Lenchinsko-Vlodava lake system. The Shatsk group of lakes is located on the Belarusian and Ukrainian territories. The largest of them are the Orekhovskoye and Oltushskoye lakes, which are located in Belarus.
Geographically, the river basin is located on a vast territory, which includes the Ukrainian plateau, Brest Polissya and the Pribugskaya plain. The mouth of the river is located on the Eastern European Plain.
The lands adjacent to the Western Bug are intended mainly for agriculture. Almost 45% of the territory is occupied in the agricultural sector of production, forests occupy 27%, and meadows and pastures - 18%. On the Polish coast, industry is developed and building materials are produced, Belarus produces agricultural products and develops a processing industry. Ukraine is energy, light andcoal mining industry.
In total, about 3 million people live on the lands adjacent to the Bug basin. The largest cities: Lviv (Ukraine) - more than 700 thousand, Brest (Belarus) - 340 thousand, Chelm (Poland) - about 70 thousand inhabitants.
The Western Bug River, its tributaries, lakes and artificial reservoirs are very attractive for tourism and recreation. Transparent air, impeccable ecology and accessibility attract both lovers of a quiet rural pastime and supporters of active actions. Water recreation - boats and kayaks - the most popular type of leisure among vacationers. Equestrian and cycling tourism is developing throughout the territory. Fishing lovers have long liked these places. The abundance of different types of fish allows even a novice angler to feel like a champion of silent fishing.
The most visited holiday destinations are on the Lenchinsko-Vlodava and Shatsky lakes. In Belarus, a popular destination is the tributaries of the Western Bug Mukhavets and Lesnaya.
Interesting cities on the banks of the Western Bug
Busk, Ukraine. "Galician Venice" - this name was assigned to the city, located at the source of the many kilometers of the Western Bug.
Completely destroyed in 1241 by the Mongol-Tatars, due to its favorable location at the beginning of a large river, Busk became a developed center of crafts and trade. Magdeburg law was given to him among the first in Galicia. The Western Bug and the forests located along its banks became a source of raw materials for the paper industry, whichdeveloped rapidly in the 15th and 16th centuries. The first edition of the Ostroh Bible (1581) was published on paper made in Busk by Ivan Fedorov.
Brest, Belarus. At the mention of this place, the memory of the stasis pushes only one name to the surface - the Brest Fortress. Built near the Western Bug and its tributary Mukhavets, it was the first to take the blow of the Nazi troops. The defense of the Brest Fortress is a page of unparalleled courage in the annals of the beginning of the war. Every year the memorial complex in the Brest Fortress is visited by thousands of people.
Brok, Poland. The first mention of Broca dates back to 1203. The settlement, which arose on the site of a modern city in the Early Middle Ages, developed due to its favorable location on the banks of the Western Bug River. It was the main trade route by which goods from Europe were delivered to Kievan Rus. The ancient city in our time attracts the attention of lovers of a good rest with the atmosphere of antiquity reigning in it.
Ancient riverbed sedately carries its waters. It keeps in memory the various periods of life of the inhabitants of its shores. Instead of wars and the clang of weapons came a peaceful life and melodic songs. Generations changed, and traces of new people appeared in the sand. Every day starts with a clean slate. Because you cannot enter the same river twice.