- General Description
- Growing places
- Mushroom varieties of our latitude
- When to collect?
- How to tell?
- Signs of poisoning
Mushroom pickers love mushrooms, because they are easy to collect and they grow in groups. The name mushrooms "honey mushrooms" or "honey mushrooms" refers to a whole genus of eukaryotic organisms. And the name is given due to the fact that, with the exception of a small number of representatives of the family of these mushrooms, most grow on stumps. There are a total of 34 species.
Mushrooms of this family have a cap that can be from 2 to 17 centimeters in diameter. The colors of the cap are also very different, from yellow to brown. It is generally accepted that the color is formed due to the substrate in which the fungus grows. If the mushroom cap has a convex shape, then its edges, as a rule, are lighter than the middle. They are often wavy.
The stem is tube-shaped, dense and velvety, 1 to 2 centimeters in diameter. It can be up to 7 centimeters long.
The flesh is white and firm but becomes thinner as it ages. The pulp of the leg is presented in the form of fibers.
The smell and taste of mushrooms are pleasant and tasty.
The composition of these mushrooms contains vitamins B, E, C, and PP. There are useful trace elements: iron, phosphorus, zinc, potassium and others. They contain fiber, protein, amino acids and natural sugar.
Edible honey mushrooms are recommended for vegetarians, as they allow you to make up for the lack of phosphorus and potassium due to the lack of protein foods in the diet. For the same reason, mushrooms are recommended for people who have problems with bone tissue and as a preventive product against the occurrence of this type of pathology.
Zinc, iron and magnesium have a beneficial effect on the process of hematopoiesis, so they are suitable for people with anemia. Only 100 grams of mushrooms contains a daily dose of trace elements to maintain normal hemoglobin. These mushrooms have antimicrobial properties, in terms of antiseptic properties they can even be compared with garlic.
Traditional medicine uses mushrooms to treat diseases of the thyroid gland and liver.
Mushrooms, despite the high content of nutrients, are not recommended for use in childhood, up to the age of 12. Pickled mushrooms should not be consumed in the presence of gastritis or stomach ulcers, as well as other problems with the gastrointestinal tract.
At their core, mushrooms are parasitic and can grow in more than 200 types of shrubs and trees. They can even parasitize on potatoes and herbaceous plants. In the process of growth, fungi cause white rot on vegetation.
Some mushrooms from this genus are saprophytes, that is, they grow exclusively on dead and rotten trees and stumps.
Mushroom grows almost everywhere, except for the part of the world where the permafrost. Prefers ravines and wet forests.
Mushroom varieties of our latitude
- Autumn mushroom. It grows mainly on aspen, alder, elm and birch. This variety can be harvested already at the end of August and almost before the onset of winter, if the atmospheric temperature does not fall below + 10 degrees.
- Autumn view has quite impressive dimensions, the hat in diameter can reach 17 centimeters. After appearing above the soil surface, the cap has a convex shape, later it straightens out, becomes flat, the edges are wavy. The color can be olive or dark brown. Rare scales may be observed, a lighter shade in relation to the color of the mushroom.
- Spring. Prefers fallen trees and foliage. It grows best in pine and oak groves. It has a fairly elastic leg, the height of which can reach 9 centimeters. The color of the fungus is brick, in the process of aging it becomes lighter. The flesh is usually white, but may have a slight yellow tint. Collection starts from June to November.
- Winter. In different countries it is called differently, kollibia, inoki or enokitake. They grow best on dead wood, "love" park areas, forest edges, plantings of poplars and willows, gardens. The mushroom got its name because it bears fruit from autumn until spring, it can often be found undersnow.
- Summer. It grows well in deciduous forests, bears fruit from mid-spring until November. It is better to look for it near rotten trees and stumps. Grows in large groups. The hat reaches 6 centimeters in diameter, if very wet weather sets in, the brown color turns into a honey-yellow hue. The leg of the mushroom is quite high, up to 7 centimeters, dense and smooth.
- Thick-legged. These mushrooms parasitize only on heavily damaged trees, they can grow on rotten plants and even on fallen leaves. A distinctive feature of the species is a thick and onion-shaped leg. The cap diameter is from 2 to 10 centimeters, the ring has a star-shaped appearance, with frequent breaks. The middle of the cap has dry scales that persist until the fungus dries completely. The flesh of the thick-legged honey agaric has a cheesy flavor.
- Lugovoy. It grows almost everywhere, in meadows, fields and pastures. It can be found in the summer cottage and in the ravine. Gives a bountiful harvest. Often grows in arced rows or even gives the so-called "witch" circles.
The legs of mushrooms are thin and curved, with a height of up to 10 centimeters. When it's damp outside, the hat becomes sticky, slightly reddish or tan.
The pulp has a sweetish taste, with a slight clove or almond smell. You can harvest from May to October. It grows mainly in Japan and the Canary Islands, although it is found in almost the entire territory of Eurasia. Fairly drought tolerant.
When to collect?
Agaric mushrooms grow in the forest from May to late autumn, naturally there are varieties like winter, which can be found in winter, but still a large crop can be harvested in the warm season.
Yield largely depends on the weather in a particular area. Under the most favorable circumstances, up to 400 kg can be collected from one hectare. If spring and summer are dry, then up to 100 kg is unlikely to be collected.
The peak of mushroom picking falls on August and lasts until the beginning of winter, but on condition that the temperature does not fall below +10 degrees. Most often, mushrooms appear in three layers, it takes about 15-20 days to develop one layer.
Collecting can be done not only near old trees, but also in clearings. If they grow on the edges, then not far in the ground, there are roots or stumps. Mushroom growth sites can be called stable, if at least once they were noticed in a certain part of the forest, then you can come here regularly. Simplifies the collection and "love" of the mushroom for large companies, it is very rare to find a single honey agaric.
Not to mention poisonous mushrooms. False honey agaric has a botanical name and description, it is also called brick red false honey agaric. This is the most common type of inedible poisonous mushrooms, and it “knows how” to disguise itself very well as edible ones, so it often gets on the table of mushroom pickers. It has the greatest similarity with the autumn honey agaric, namely, this species is most often pickled and preserved.
How to tell?
First of all, so that the dangerous twin of the mushroom - autumn honey agaric - does not get into the basket, you need to pay attention to the color of the cap. Poisonous young mushroom has an orange hat, after ripening it becomes brick red. The coverlet is white with scraps along the edges of the hat, outwardly very similar to fringe.
The second feature of the inedible mushroom is that it does not have a dense ring on its stem. The leg itself is thin, no more than 1.5 centimeters, up to 5 centimeters high.
The third feature of the dangerous counterpart of the autumn fungus is that it never grows in coniferous forests. It grows in well-ventilated and light forests. Necessarily in deciduous, mainly on stumps and vaults of birch, linden, aspen and alder.
Fruiting occurs at the end of the last month of summer and the beginning of September.
The smell of poisonous mushrooms is unpleasant. The color of the inner plates of the cap varies from yellow to olive-black, depending on the age of the mushroom. In edible it is always white-yellow or cream.
Inedible mushrooms have a bitter taste, although it is better not to bring the situation until the moment of testing. Therefore, an inexperienced mushroom picker should select them very carefully so as not to end up in a hospital bed.
In general, these are all signs of which honey mushrooms are suitable for consumption and which are not.
Signs of poisoning
The main "blow" after the use of false honey agaric falls on the central nervous system. The departed person feels dizzy, nauseous, perhaps evenstarts vomiting and headache. With severe poisoning, blood pressure may increase, nosebleeds may begin.
Remember that if medical attention is not provided in a timely manner, the heart may stop and possible cerebral hemorrhage.
Interestingly, some lookalike mushrooms are considered conditionally edible mushrooms, that is, they can be eaten, subject to thorough and prolonged heat treatment, and in small quantities.