Social competencies: concept, definition, formation of social skills and rules of interaction

Social competencies: concept, definition, formation of social skills and rules of interaction
Social competencies: concept, definition, formation of social skills and rules of interaction

Recently, the concept of "social competence" is used more and more often in the educational literature. It is interpreted by the authors in different ways. In addition, this concept can include many elements.

Terminology issues

Social competence is considered by some authors as a combination of such human qualities:

  • Empathy.
  • Social sensitivity.
  • Tolerance.
  • Openness.
  • Independence.
  • Spontaneity.
  • Creativity.

Other authors single out only two aspects - cooperation and autonomy. Currently, there is no generally accepted definition of social competence. The problem is related to the fact that in various scientific disciplines the term "competence" has a different meaning.

social and personal competencies

In addition, it should be borne in mind that the content of the concept depends on the specificsthe situation the subject is in. Equally important are the features of the requirements for the individual.

If in domestic conditions some model of behavior is recognized as successful, then in labor activity its use can lead to collapse. Therefore, it is important to develop various types of competence (including social and professional ones). Expectations in relation to one subject will vary greatly depending on his role in society. For example, others make different demands on colleagues, subordinates, managers.

Important moment

Social competence cannot be viewed as a personal motivation or individual qualification. It can develop only in favorable and open conditions. A simplified interpretation of social competence can only be used to explain serious, frequent, obvious deviations in the behavior of an individual.

key social competencies

Element content

It is defined using categories of general competence. In the socio-communicative model of human behavior, D. Euler identified 6 categories:

  1. Non-verbal or verbal expression of opinion at the level of emotions, intentions, relationships and at the business level.
  2. Interpretation of opinion.
  3. Metacommunication.
  4. Sensitivity to communication interference (overt or covert).
  5. Analysis of communication conditions (personal or situational).
  6. Using analysis results.

Structural elements

Components of the socialcompetencies are:

  1. Knowledge of the behavior of the people around you. The subject must understand the essence of statements, the problems of other individuals, know the methods of searching for information, ways of resolving conflicts.
  2. The ability to communicate with specific subjects (address communication), offer help, attract the attention of interlocutors, show interest in them, make contact, navigate in the environment, argue opinions, resolve and prevent conflicts, be responsible for one's behavior, be tolerant of other people.
  3. Individual characteristics. The presence of social and personal competence is evidenced by such individual traits of the subject as organization, perseverance, creativity, activity, purposefulness, striving for self-improvement, curiosity, sociability, observation, adherence to principles, readiness for cooperation, honesty and decency, independence, determination, self-confidence..
  4. Ability to constructively interact with different people, maintain communication, empathize, understand and accept the point of view of the interlocutor, determine the psychological state of the communication partner, evaluate the conditions of communication and be able to build one’s speech in accordance with them, be attentive to the interlocutor, control their behavior, to bring the work started to the end, to correctly formulate thoughts and express their opinions.
development of social competence

From what has been said, it follows that the socialcompetence is a system:

  • Knowledge about yourself and social reality.
  • Complex skills and abilities.
  • Models of behavior in standard (typical) conditions, thanks to which the subject can quickly adapt to circumstances and quickly make the right decision.

Building social competence

Socio-economic changes in modern Russia cause new requirements for the personal qualities of subjects. The upbringing of the individual, investing in him key social competencies is carried out from a very early age. An important condition for education is a favorable psychological climate in the family, among peers. At the emotional level, relationships in a preschool institution, at school are reflected. Social competencies in children appear and develop under the supervision of adults.

The task of teachers and parents is to create a favorable psychological climate for the child. It is necessary to provide children with the opportunity to talk about themselves, to study themselves, to communicate with other children and adults, to hear them.

the concept of social competence

Necessary conditions

The development of social competencies will be effective only if the following conditions are met:

  1. A teacher or parents should reorient themselves to work with the personal elements of the child's consciousness, provide support for his ability to make responsible choices, reflection, self-organization, and creativity.
  2. Leisure programs should be filled with social and emotionalcomponents.
  3. Pedagogical technologies used in education should be built taking into account the specifics of the relationship between an adult and a child.
  4. Psychological education, correctional and developmental work, counseling should be carried out.

The pedagogical conditions for the formation and improvement of social competencies in an educational institution include:

  1. The presence of a specially created system of social and pedagogical assistance, organized taking into account negative influencing factors, based on the implementation of various options for leisure programs.
  2. Children have the opportunity to experience in different areas of life and activities for the results of successful behavior.
  3. Ensuring consistent pedagogical impact on students.


Social competence is formed and developed for the following purposes:

  1. Creating a favorable psychological climate in the children's team, which is characterized by the organization of productive interaction of children with each other and with adults.
  2. Formation of tolerant attitude towards peers, development of communication skills.
  3. Formation of a base for emotional self-regulation, awareness of one's experiences and feelings in the current conditions.
school of social competencies

Expected results

Properly structured work on the formation of social competencies should lead to children's understanding of the essence of the concepts of "training", "friend", "friendship", "emotions","feelings", "feelings", "values", "team".

Each child should develop skills and abilities:

  1. In the field of self-knowledge - understanding and acceptance of one's sensations, feelings, assessment of one's state and the state of the interlocutor by external signs, the use of non-verbal and verbal communication means.
  2. In the field of interpersonal interaction, the ability to overcome barriers and stereotypes in communication.

One of the key conditions for effective self-development and self-realization of all participants in the educational process is psychological comfort in an educational institution.

The role of the teacher

Social competence (according to many experts) should be considered as a state of balance between the environment in which the subject is located, the requirements that society imposes on him, and his capabilities. When the balance is disturbed, crises occur. Preventing them is the most important task of the teacher.

To prevent crisis phenomena, the teacher must be able to see the child, recognize problems in a timely manner, observe his behavior, fix difficulties, analyze them and develop correction methods.

social communicative competence

Competence approach

Currently, the educational process is under reform. To implement the concept of modernization of the domestic pedagogical system, educational institutions need to solve a number of problems. One of them is the formationcompetencies that determine the quality of the educational process.

To effectively use the competency-based approach, teachers need to clearly define what key (universal) and qualifying (special) personal qualities school graduates will need in their life and work. The solution to this problem presupposes the ability of teachers to form an indicative basis for their activities. It is a set of information about educational work, a description of its subject, goals, means and results. The teacher must form and develop in children the knowledge and skills that will be useful to him in later life.

The competence-based approach does not provide for the acquisition by children of skills that are separate from each other, but the mastery of their complex. In accordance with this provision, a system of teaching and upbringing methods is being formed. The process of their construction and selection is based on the specifics of competencies and educational tasks.

formation of social competence


Today, many scientists are engaged in the effective use of the competence-based approach. Scientists are looking for ways to bridge the gap between theory and its practical application in educational institutions. This is due to the fact that the features of the competence-based approach are more studied in the framework of vocational education. Therefore, not all school teachers have an idea of ​​how to implement it.

Social competence matters wherever interaction takes placepeople: in the family, in an educational institution, in society. Modern education poses a difficult task for teachers to form in children not only educational, but also social competencies. The result of its solution should be the education in students of the ability to establish contact with other people, show patience, respect for others, understand the state of other people, and behave adequately in society. All these qualities are laid down in childhood. To develop these skills, teachers must work together with parents to develop approaches that take into account the individual characteristics of children. Only in this case can we count on the fact that school graduates will become worthy citizens of their country.

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