- True patriotism
- Types of patriotism
- Patriotism and the State
- Patriotic education
- Patriotism and man
- What is jingoism?
- History of the term
- Portrait of a jingoistic patriot
- Danger of jingoism
- Good trend
Patriotism is a bright and creative feeling based on love for the Motherland and respect for one's compatriots. However, sometimes it takes unpleasant, even dangerous forms. For example, jingoistic patriotism is patriotism taken to the extreme, to the point of absurdity. Love for the Fatherland turns into a blind irrational obsession that suppresses the ability to think critically.
Hurrah-patriot is set only to praise his own country and at the same time often does not like other states and peoples. He turns a blind eye to unpleasant facts and problems, willingly agrees with any decisions of the authorities, easily dismisses real facts, is intolerant of the opposite opinion, and is ready to accuse those who disagree with his point of view of national betrayal. But how to catch and realize the line, after which an adequate citizen becomes an adherent of jingoistic patriotism, what kind of phenomenon is this, what is its meaning and reasons? To do this, you should understand the basic concepts.
Recently in Russia there has been an extraordinary patriotic upsurge in society. Reasons to be proud ofthere are many countries: the Olympics in Sochi, the annexation of Crimea, military successes in Syria, a well-conducted world football championship, the country's increased geopolitical weight. Of course, people evaluate each of these events differently, but in general, today more than 90% of Russians call themselves patriots of Russia.
Although in the 1990s, after the collapse of the USSR, the word “patriot” became almost a curse word, it was often endowed with a negative connotation, associated with Soviet ideology, with the nomenklatura opportunism characteristic of it in later years or jingoistic patriotism hammered into the heads. Citizens of young Russia did not really understand what country they live in, where this country is moving and whether it will exist at all in a few years.
The difficult and troubled nineties have passed, the state has stood the test, solved a number of complex problems and entered the new millennium stronger and more stable economically and politically. The Russians began to look to the future with great hopes and confidence. The concept of a patriot has regained its true meaning. People have ceased to be ashamed of their patriotic feelings and voluntarily show it. What is true patriotism?
According to dictionaries, this is a moral category and a special social feeling, which is expressed in love for one's own Fatherland (region, city), readiness to put state interests above one's own benefits and benefits, in the desire to defend the Motherland, defend its integrity. Patriotism is also called a strong emotional experience of a person who is internally aware of his obvious belonging to a certainstate, people, language, culture, history, traditions.
Types of patriotism
There are several established types of patriotism:
- State. Its foundation is love for the state, pride in one's country.
- Imperial. A sense of belonging to the Empire, loy alty to its authorities.
- Hurrah-patriotism. He is bastard or kvass. It is characterized by exaggerated, extreme love and loy alty to the state, authorities, people.
- Ethnic. Love and commitment to one's ethnic group.
- Local. Attachment to the region, the city, even the street, to traditions, cultural features, a certain way of life.
Patriotism and the State
For the state, patriotism often becomes a fundamental idea that unites the country, a moral and spiritual foundation. Patriotically minded citizens are easier to manage, because usually they are loyal even to unpopular decisions and laws of the authorities. Patriots are ready to endure hardships and sacrifice their interests for the sake of national interests, they are devoted to national values, always stand up for the integrity of the country's territory and, without coercion, go to defend it in case of war.
It is very difficult to exist for a state that denies the importance of patriotism. An unpatriotic society is a threat to power. The people who are at the head of Russia understand this very well, therefore they spare no effort and resources for state programs on patrioticeducation of Russian citizens. National patriotism is proclaimed the most important factor for uniting society.
Patriotic attitudes and values of Russians are formed with the help of the media, cinema, fiction, music. In addition, patriotic feelings are brought up and developed in such areas as the unity of national history and language, the glorification of national heroes of different times, the ex altation of the economic, military, sports, diplomatic, scientific and cultural achievements of the country.
Patriotism and man
But this feeling is important not only for the state and authorities. Patriotism gives a person an invaluable sense of spiritual connection with the country, with his own nation and land. Through love for the Fatherland, people feel their identity, belonging to a common history and culture. A person realizes his involvement in many bygone generations, to a special national worldview and way of life.
Incapable of loving the Motherland, people are like a tree that has lost its roots. They may call themselves cosmopolitans and citizens of the world, but, in fact, they become strangers wherever they live. Patriotism is a completely natural state of the human soul, it helps to find the meaning of life. However, just as love can turn into a painful, destructive passion, a sincere patriot can sometimes turn into dangerous fanatics.
The roots of nationalism grow out of ethnic patriotism. For a nationalistthe value is its people, the nation as a community of people connected by one history, language, territory, economic ties, characteristics and traditions. Sometimes nationalism becomes the basis for state policy and ideology. Sometimes he appears spontaneously among a certain group of people who are united by nationalist ideas.
For a moderate nationalist, in the first place are loy alty to their own people and the desire to transform the state so that the nation prospers. However, extreme right-wing nationalism can lead to big trouble, because it often turns into nationalistic jingoism. The difference between radicalism is that love for one's ethnic group is largely supplemented or even replaced by intolerance towards other countries and hatred towards representatives of other nationalities.
Good intentions, when properly brainwashed, easily turn into the browns of Nazism and extremism. Such patriots, in a nationalistic frenzy, sometimes begin to proclaim the special position of Russians in the country, their privilege and superiority over other nationalities inhabiting Russia. However, such an approach is unacceptable and dangerous in a multinational state, so inciting ethnic hatred and discord is considered a crime in Russian law.
What is jingoism?
Kvass, or jingoistic patriots, are people who unconditionally and enthusiastically praise their state, the decision of the authorities and everything domestic, not wanting to admit and even notice the mistakes of the rulers and the negative features of their country. Hooray-patriotic love is noisy, categorical and public, but often turns out to be false or changeable.
History of the term
Usually, the concepts of "cheers-patriot", "bastard" or "leavened" patriot are considered synonymous. Therefore, with a high degree of probability, we can say when the concept of "cheers-patriotism" appeared. Its authorship is attributed to Prince Peter Vyazemsky, who was a Russian poet, statesman, translator, talented literary critic, publicist, close friend of Pushkin.
In 1827, in one of his letters, the prince ironically called leavened and lackey patriotism the tendency of some compatriots to reckless and rabid praise of all their own. Kvass was used here as a symbol of everything Russian, indigenous, Slavic, to which the enthusiastic Slavophiles were so fond of referring. Although real patriotism, according to Vyazemsky, should be based on exacting love for the fatherland. Subsequently, the concept of "cheers-patriotism" became more popular and used in everyday speech, we will almost completely replace our synonyms.
Portrait of a jingoistic patriot
There is a fairly stable pattern: when a state has good times, when it develops rapidly economically and culturally, emerges victorious from a war or a difficult geopolitical situation, many jingoists appear in society. They enthusiastically praise the government, nation or country, enjoying their involvement in great events and victories. But indifficult moments for the state, the number of enthusiastic citizens is rapidly decreasing, and yesterday's jingoistic patriots sometimes become inexorable detractors.
Joy-patriotism is a kind of mental state. If we draw up a universal portrait of a jingoistic patriot, then, of course, the following features can be attributed to him: suggestibility; demagogy and double standards; aggressiveness and impatience to someone else's opinion; categorical judgments; tendency to slogans and generalizations; craving for militarism and authoritarian management style; frequent chauvinism and hostility towards opponents, other countries and nationalities.
Fortunately, under normal conditions, leavened patriotism is inherent in a small number of Russians. Most of them are not happy, but they recognize the problems and shortcomings of their country, have critical thinking and the ability to listen to counterarguments. However, with the help of the media and propaganda, jingoism can infect entire nations, and there is a lot of evidence of this in history.
Danger of jingoism
One of the main features of the jingoistic patriot is his confidence in the strength and invincibility of his state. For example, before the First World War, millions of Europeans passionately desired the outbreak of hostilities, succumbing to the powerful influence of propaganda and statements by the authorities and the military. Europe was saturated with militaristic ideas. Such was the fire of jingoistic patriotism that any calls for peace and warnings of terrible troubles were drowned in general calls for war.
All participants in the upcoming massacre were convinced of victory.The result of this explosion of patriotism was a mad war in which almost thirty million Europeans were killed, maimed and wounded and several empires ceased to exist. Hooray-patriotism flourished in fascist Italy, Nazi Germany and Japan, which unleashed an even more terrible war. Almost one hundred and fifty million people were killed and injured in this worldwide conflict.
This phenomenon has not bypassed Russia. Before the Russo-Japanese War at the beginning of the twentieth century, militaristic ideas, jingoistic patriotism and hatred moods reigned in the Russian Empire. A significant part of the population longed for a quick victory over the Japanese, the military and officials convinced that Russian weapons and a Russian warrior would quickly break the resistance of technically backward Japan. As a result, Russia lost resoundingly, almost losing the fleet, concluding a humiliating peace treaty and experiencing a national sense of humiliation.
Already in Soviet Russia, similar events took place. In 1939, before the start of the war with Finland, with the help of the media, confidence was raised among Soviet citizens in the lightning victory of the Red Army and the need to invade the neighboring country. But the hostilities turned into huge losses, insignificant successes against their background, and an agreement that secured the status of an independent state for Finland.
At the beginning of the summer of 2018, a large telephone survey was conducted among two thousand Russians. It turned out that the level of jingoistic patriotism in Russia is very low. Approximately 92% of respondentscalled themselves patriots, but only 3% said that patriotism consists in not noticing and not criticizing the shortcomings of the state and the mistakes of the authorities, 19% of respondents are convinced that it is necessary to tell the truth about Russia, no matter how bitter and offensive it may be.
As a rule, patriotism is understood by Russians as a sense of pride in the country. The main reasons for pride are: diverse natural resources (38.5%); historical events and victories (37.8%); achievements in sports (28.9%); domestic culture (28.5%); the immense size of the Russian Federation (28%).