Table of contents:
- The term "being"
- Historical research of the essence of being
- The Essence of Being
- The essence of being human
- Problems of philosophical understanding of existence
- The meaning of human existence
- Common in approaches to the meaning of life
2023 Author: Henry Conors | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:05
Being is the most fundamental foundation of philosophy. This term refers to reality that exists objectively. It does not depend on human consciousness, emotions or will. Being is studied by such a science as ontology. It allows you to realize its objectively differentiated diversity, creating a superficial perception of the world. The philosophical meaning of the problem of being, its meaning, aspects and their meaning will be discussed further.
The term "being"
It is extremely difficult to briefly consider the philosophical meaning of the problem of being. This is the fundamental category of science presented.
Its superficial study will not allow you to realize the whole picture of the presented concept. There are different approaches to understanding the term "being". People use it in their speech, meaning one of its three main meanings:
- It's objectiveexisting (regardless of our consciousness) reality.
- A generalized statement that is used to describe the material conditions of life of people and society as a whole.
- This is synonymous with existence.
In philosophical anthropology, the meaning of human existence is understood ambiguously. As in other sciences, this concept is a deep philosophical problem. A person can understand this category for himself from different positions. Depending on the choice of worldview position, the definition of being takes place. A person can choose to form his concept of this category of science, faith, mysticism, religion, fantasy or practical life.
The philosophical meaning of the category of being is considered by this science as the main problem of a general or specific worldview. This is the core of metaphilosophy.
In a broad sense, this term should be considered as everything that is, that exists or is available. This is an extremely broad, infinite and diverse category. Non-existence opposes being. This is something that does not exist or cannot exist at all.
If we consider the term more specifically, it means the entire material world. This is an objective reality that exists independently of human consciousness. To prove this quality of the material world, substantiation takes place using empirical, experimental methods. So, for example, there is no need to prove the existence of beauty, space, nature or other categories, regardless of human consciousness. But to justify autonomythe existence of a physical person (organism) from consciousness is much more difficult.
Historical research of the essence of being
To describe the philosophical meaning of the problem of being, it is briefly necessary to consider historical research in this field of knowledge. The term presented for the first time was used by Parmenides (philosopher of the 5th-4th centuries BC). During the existence of this thinker, people's faith in the gods of Olympus began to noticeably decline. Myths began to be regarded as fiction, which destroyed the basic world norms. The world, the Universe began to be perceived as something shapeless and unreliable, as if a support had been knocked out from under people's feet. The person began to experience fear, anxiety, which made their life terrible.
People in the subconscious despaired, began to doubt everything, could not find a way out of the impasse. They needed to find a solid, reliable support, faith in a new force. In the person of Parmenides, philosophy was able to recognize the current problem. In place of doubts about the power of the gods came the realization of the power of the mind, thought. But these were not mere thoughts. This is a "pure", absolute thought, which was not associated with sensory experience. Parmenides informed mankind of a new force discovered by him. She holds the world, not allowing him to plunge into chaos. This approach made it possible to streamline global processes in the understanding of people.
The new philosophical meaning of being was considered by Parmenides as Providence, Deity, eternal. He argued that all processes occur not just like that, but “by necessity”. The course of things cannot change by chance. The sunwill not suddenly go out, and people will not disappear in one day. Behind the object-sensory world, the philosopher saw something that would act as a guarantor for everything that exists. Parmenides called it Deity, which meant new support and support for people.
The philosopher borrowed the term "being" from the Greek language. But the meaning of this word has received a new content. To be is to exist in reality, to be available. This category has become an objective response to the needs of that era. Parmenides endowed being with the following characteristics:
- This is what is behind the sensory world, this is thought.
- It is one, absolute and unchanging.
- There is no division into object and subject.
- There is every possible community of perfections, the main of which are Good, Truth, Good.
Being is a true existence that has no beginning and no end. It is indivisible, indestructible, never-ending. Being does not need anything, is devoid of feelings. Therefore, it can be comprehended only by the mind, thought. Parmenides, in order to briefly describe the philosophical meaning of the category of being, presented it to people in the form of a sphere that has no boundaries in space. Such a description followed from the idea that the ball is the most beautiful, perfect form.
Under the thought, which is being, according to the philosopher, he meant the Logos. This is the cosmic Mind, through which a person reveals the Truth of being for himself. It opens up to people directly.
The Essence of Being
It is necessary to understand the essence of the presented term, considering the concept of being. The philosophical meaning of the problem of being is realizedthrough the interaction of things. There are certain relationships between them. Things affect each other, changing each other.
The existence of the world can be revealed in terms of "time", "matter", "motion" and "space". Over time, people change in communication. They mutually influence each other. Demand affects supply, and production affects consumption. Such mutual processes lead to the fact that objects cease to be what they were before. The existence of a certain form passes into non-existence. It is interaction that underlies these two concepts. It determines the finiteness of being, as well as the fragmentation of material reality.
If one object passed into oblivion, the other began to exist in reality. This is a prerequisite. Non-existence and existence determine the existence of each other. These are two opposites, which in unity acquire infinity.
Limitedness, finiteness are only a fragment of being. The vital roots and the philosophical meaning of the problem of being must be considered from this position. If you connect all the fragments of being, both sides, you get unlimitedness. It is quantitative and qualitative infinity.
This feature is inherent in being in the general sense, but not the world as a whole or a particular object. At the same time, immortality for a particular object is impossible in principle, since it interacts only with a limited circle of other objects. They reveal only a limited number of properties.
Therefore, the foundation of being isinteraction. Without it, existence would not be able to manifest itself. Perhaps only that which interacts. For a person, this is especially true. For us, something that is not determined by the senses, consciousness cannot exist. This does not mean at all that what we do not know does not exist. It can interact with something else. It exists, but does not exist for us.
The essence of being human
The philosophical meaning of the concept of being must also be considered from the standpoint of human society. The essence of this concept for a particular individual also matters. Man is a corporeal, material being. It is considered in philosophy as a thing. It interacts with other objects, changing them. This, for example, may be the process of nutrition. We eat by processing food.
But unlike all other things, man has the ability to reflect reality in his mind. Therefore, our impact on the subject is purposeful. It is conditioned by consciousness. This way of interaction is specific. This ability of a person radically changes the attitude of one individual to other people, as well as to his own personality.
Relationships an individual enters into are conditioned by work. In this case, it is a social interaction that includes a spiritual basis as well.
Considering the vital and philosophical meaning of the problem of being, it is worth noting that the presented concepts act not only as a bodily or objective phenomenon. This existencealso spiritual. This is how a person relates to social and natural reality.
Subject understanding of being allows you to see the intrinsic value of the individual as a whole. This allows you to focus on the preservation of the natural environment for humans. In this case, he is considered as an object-bodily being. In this case, it cannot be reduced to an information complex or a set of interactions.
Man is understood as a special bodily-spiritual microcosm. He pursues the interests of developing his own spiritual sphere while maintaining the objective-corporeal nature. It needs to maintain a natural environment for its own existence. This is the main condition for the preservation of human existence as such. Therefore, one of the "cornerstones" in the theoretical basis of humanism is an abstract philosophical understanding of things, their interaction and properties.
There are two approaches to the definition of the philosophical meaning of the problem of being. The main forms of being are divided into two groups according to the type of existence:
In the first case, this form means, for example, the solar system. Ideal being is the idea of its origin.
By nature, the presented category can be:
- Existence is objective. Its characteristic feature is independence from human consciousness.
- Being is subjective. It is an integral part of human consciousness.
Toto understand what is at stake, you need to consider the philosophical meaning and basic forms of being. So, its material forms can be:
- Naturally organic substances, such as biological species.
- Natural-inorganic objects. This category includes planets, stars, seas, mountains, etc.
- Artificial. These are man-made mechanisms.
The ideal kinds of existence are:
- Ideal is objective (thinking, law).
- Ideal is subjective (eg dreams).
It is also worth highlighting the following forms of being:
- The existence of man.
- Being spiritual. This is the unity of the unconscious and conscious beginning, knowledge that is expressed through speech.
- The existence of the social. This is the unity of the varieties of human activity. A subset of this category is individualized and social existence.
- Being things, bodies, processes.
There are different kinds of being:
- States of nature (such as a natural disaster).
- The primary natural environment that arose before man and his consciousness. It is primary and objective. This implies the birth of man and the appearance of his spirit after nature. We are inextricably linked to the environment.
- Processes, things that were created by people. This is secondary nature.
Problems of philosophical understanding of existence
Considering what the philosophical meaning of the category "being" is, it is worth saying thatthis concept has several major problems:
- determining existence;
- justification of its forms and types;
- unity and uniqueness of existence;
- the ratio between the immortality of being and the annihilation of its individual elements;
- combination of the unity of this category with the independence and diversity of elements of its content;
- independence of reality from a person, but at the same time his objective involvement in the overall process.
One of the most important problems of philosophy remains the comparison between real and potential being.
Another eternal problem of philosophical science in the presented direction is the ratio of the ideal and the material. It was designated as the main one in the philosophy of Marxism. At the same time, being and thinking, spirit and nature were compared. Existence in this teaching meant exclusively the material world.
Such ratios were considered in the context of two main categories. The first of them determines the primacy of the ideal or material. The second category argues for the possibility of mankind to know the essence of existence.
Depending on which of the beginnings will be a priority, philosophical worldviews are divided into idealistic and materialistic schools. The second of the directions of this doctrine was consistently defended by Democritus. He made the assumption that the basis of all existence is an indivisible particle - an atom. This particle does not develop and is impenetrable. Thisthe philosopher believed that everything consists of a different combination of atoms. Democritus was of the opinion that the soul and consciousness are secondary to the material. Many scientists adhere to this statement, considering the philosophical meaning of the problem of being. The category of being is defined as a certain combination of material and non-material principles. But all philosophers see this combination, sequence differently.
Considering the category of being, its philosophical meaning and specifics, it is worth paying attention to its relationship with matter and consciousness. Such interaction is the concretization of existence. Its main types are consciousness and matter. Man is primarily a material and physical entity that establishes various connections with the outside world.
The sphere and condition for life is the material world. Therefore, knowledge about such an environment is necessary for every person. People build their lives consciously, as they set goals and objectives for themselves, comprehend themselves and others. We strive to achieve ideals by choosing appropriate means for this. Based on consciousness, we creatively solve emerging problems.
Understanding matter is explained by scientific methods. For this, certain sciences are developed, the events of reality are explained. First of all, research in the field of natural science is devoted to the concept and development of the material environment. Practically in all philosophical views of antiquity there are views on the material world.
Different concepts are used to describe the material world in the process of studying the philosophical meaning of the category of being. It can also be "nature", "matter", "cosmos", etc.
Until the middle of the 19th century, mechanical concepts that described matter prevailed. Mechanical movement, indivisibility of the atom, inertia, independence from the properties of space, etc., were invariably considered its integral attributes. Only matter was considered a material component of reality.
So, for example, D. I. Mendeleev believed that matter is a substance that fills space and has weight, mass. Over time, in the understanding of matter, physical fields and their variable elements were also included in the definition. No other species have yet been found.
Under matter, you need to understand the totality of things, physical fields, other formations that have a substrate from which they consist.
Considering what the philosophical meaning of being is, it is worth noting that one of its categories is consciousness. The problem of understanding it is the most difficult not only in philosophy, but also in other sciences. Much about the nature of this category is already known to modern science.
Knowledge not only about consciousness, but also about the worldview, spirituality helps to find new ways for self-improvement. This is one of the fundamental categories of philosophy. Along with "matter", "consciousness" is the ultimate basis of being. Broader concepts that characterize it cannot be found.
Does consciousness exist outside of man, can only be answered with someassumptions. The existence of the material world is beyond doubt. The world and man with his consciousness are self-sufficient concepts. They are the basis of materialism. Idealism is a transcendent existence with the aim of showing the emergence from the being of the sensible world.
The category of being, its philosophical meaning and specificity are built on the broad concepts of consciousness and matter. The first form is a mental reflection of the surrounding reality. Through consciousness, a person comprehends himself. It motivates people to certain activities, behavior. Consciousness is an ideal property of the human brain. This category cannot be touched or weighed, measured. Any such operations can only be performed in relation to the material world.
The human brain is the carrier of consciousness, as it is a highly organized formation that has many properties. With its help, self-control occurs, practical activities and management are carried out.
The main difficulty in the study of consciousness is the indirectness of research. This can be done only through its manifestations in the processes of thinking, behavior and communication, and other activities. Studying the ideal category is extremely difficult. But it is known for sure that it was with the help of consciousness that a person received the ability to perceive, understand information, use it in their activities.
The meaning of human existence
Considering the philosophical meaning of the problems of being, it can be noted that this is the question "why is there existence?". But one of the interesting directions is the studythe question "why does it exist?". Why did such categories as matter and consciousness appear, why is existence. Humanity has been striving to answer these questions for many centuries.
To understand the philosophical meaning of being, you need to start with the definition of a person. It was given by E. Cassirer. In his opinion, man is primarily a symbolic animal. He lives in a new reality created by him. This is a symbolic universe, which consists of an uncountable number of numerous connections. Each such thread is supported by the symbol that makes it up. Such designations are multi-valued. The symbols are bottomless, endless. They are not so much a concentrate of knowledge as they indicate a specific direction. This is a definite plan, a program of life.
In search of an answer when considering the philosophical meaning of the problems of being, it is worth noting that the question of the purpose of human existence arises from doubts about the possibility of such a meaning. We do not have access to information about our own appointment. Doubt suggests that reality may be inconsistent and broken, it is absurd.
There are three approaches to solving the problem of the meaning of being, which can be defined:
- Beyond being.
- Inherent in life in its deepest manifestations.
- Created by man himself.
Common in approaches to the meaning of life
The philosophical meaning of the problems of being is considered from the position of the presented three approaches. They have something in common. This is a complex composition, which cannot be clearly assessed.
From oneOn the other hand, it can be noted that it is impossible for all people to find an answer to the question of the meaning of being, thereby denoting the final desired result. It cannot be the same for everyone. The meaning of being, built according to a single model, would enslave a person. The general idea cannot be applied to everyone, as it comes from outside.
All approaches that are applied to the search for the meaning of life are characterized by solidarity and an interest in working out the human in a person. Thus, the Austrian psychologist A. Adler argues that the essence, the purpose of being, cannot be determined for a separate individual. The meaning of life can be determined only in interaction with the outside world. This is a definite contribution to the common cause.
They say that a person can create a feeling of complete peace and immense happiness in the soul only by himself. From the time of their appearance on Earth, people have been looking for answers to the questions: “What is the meaning of life? How to become happy? And it's natural. Satisfaction with one's destiny is closely interconnected with the concept of happiness, the necessary conditions for which are the factors of well-being. This applies to various spheres of human life and implies a harmonious combination of its individual elements
The essence of a person is a philosophical concept that reflects the natural properties and essential characteristics that are inherent in all people in one way or another, distinguishing them from other forms and kinds of being. There are different views on this issue
Ecological problems in the Arctic desert zone acquire not only regional but also global significance. In the northern polar region, the ice cover is rapidly shrinking, which threatens to change the entire ecosystem of the ocean, seas, coasts of continents and islands
The Bible is considered the most read book in all historical times. Philosophy also begins its teaching with the problems of being and the question of the origin of the surrounding world. Despite the rapid development of scientific knowledge, philosophical reasoning is of widespread relevance. Forms and sections of the structure of philosophy are gradually replenished by modern thinkers
Russian proverbs and their meaning. Proverbs and their meanings in Russian fairy tales. Famous Russian proverbs and sayings
In every culture of the most diverse nationalities there are elements that are unique to it. Some elements are expressed in the language of a given people. And they pass on the accumulated experience and knowledge, parting words for future generations, memories of any specific events that were of significant importance for the history of this culture. There are a huge number of such linguistic means of expression. However, we will analyze specific representatives from this mass of folk language means