- What led to the appearance of the square on the Spit of Vasilyevsky Island?
- How did the modern architectural ensemble of Birzhevaya Square appear
- Interesting details
In the place where the Spit of Vasilyevsky Island pierces the Neva, dividing it into Bolshaya and Malaya, between two embankments - Makarov and Universitetskaya, one of the most famous St. Petersburg architectural ensembles - Birzhevaya Square flaunts. Two drawbridges lead here - Exchange and Palace, symbolizing the city in many images. Here is the building of the former Stock Exchange with the Central Naval Museum located in it, the Rostral Columns recognizable all over the world rise, a magnificent square is spread. Exchange Square is surrounded by many other sights and museums in the city.
What led to the appearance of the square on the Spit of Vasilyevsky Island?
The history of Birzhevaya Square goes back to the beginning of the 18th century. This part of the island was more elevated, so it began to be used before the rest of its territory.The first structures were windmills, until 1729 there was the position of the artillery battery of V. D. Korchmin.
Strelka was chosen for celebrations with fireworks; in the middle of the 18th century, colorful performances of the "Illumination Theater" were staged here.
In 1716, the development plan for Vasilevsky Island was approved and the first stone and wooden buildings - residential buildings and institutions - began to be erected on the Strelka. The new business center of the city and, accordingly, the new main city square was supposed to be located here. The proposals of the architects succeeded each other, but did not suit the king until 1722, and the planned temple on the square was never erected, since Peter eventually rejected all his projects.
Since 1728, a wooden pier of the seaport has settled on the Strelka, the institutions serving it have been located here. The first exchange in Russia functioned in St. Petersburg since 1703, it was transferred to Vasilyevsky Island along with the port and customs. The exchange was first located in one or another wooden building.
The square, located right there, played the role of a market; during the navigation season, they traded with foreign merchants on it. Since 1753, on the city plan, it was called Kollezhskaya.
How did the modern architectural ensemble of Birzhevaya Square appear
In 1764, a project was developed for the redevelopment of the Spit of Vasilyevsky Island, and in 1767 it was approved. The plan called for a semicircular area. Among other buildings, it was planned and in 1783 the construction of the stone building of the Stock Exchange began.according to the sketches of the architect D. Quarenghi. But it turned out to be unsuccessful, it was rebuilt and completed only in the process of reorganizing the architectural ensemble in 1804-1810 by the architect Thomas de Thomon.
During these large-scale works, Cape Strelka of Vasilyevsky Island acquired its now known form - a 123.5-meter embankment was made, extending it, the new Stock Exchange building became the main one in the composition, Kollezhskaya Square remained behind it, and a new one appeared in front of the facade semicircular, now almost completely occupied by the square. Rostral columns were erected, banks and slopes to the water were decorated. Shortly after the completion of the Exchange building, the new square in front of it began to be called Birzhevaya.
In 1826-32 warehouses and customs were built near the Exchange building.
In 1937, the square was renamed in honor of A. S. Pushkin, it was also planned to install a monument to the poet here (it was eventually placed on Arts Square).
1989 returned the historical name of the square.
In 2010, the architectural ensemble is equipped with artistic lighting.
Two Rostral columns, installed to commemorate naval victories, have two sculptural images at their base, symbolizing the great rivers of Russia - the Neva, Volga, Volkhov and Dnieper.
Huge stone balls decorating the descent to the water, created by master Samson Sukhanov, made without the use of measuring instruments.
The square in front of the exchange building was laid out back in 1896. In 1920, a garden was set up in the park to savestarving Petrograders. The flood of 1924 washed away both the square and the vegetable garden. Re-planning and arrangement were carried out in 1925-1926.
In the mid-30s, instead of cobblestones, asph alt was first laid on the pavement.
From 1927 to 1949, busts of the architects D. Quarenghi and C. Rossi were located on Birzhevaya Square. They were removed due to damage to images by hooligans. The pedestals that remained of them stood for several more years. In 003, two sights were installed on Birzhevaya Square in St. Petersburg at once - an anchor of the early 18th century found in 2001 and a modern bronze bas-relief depicting an architectural ensemble, with the dates of construction of the components inscribed on it complex and the names of the architects.