Missile launchers - from "Katyusha" to "Smerch"

Missile launchers - from "Katyusha" to "Smerch"
Missile launchers - from "Katyusha" to "Smerch"
Anonim

The forerunners of modern rocket launchers can be considered guns from China. The shells could cover a distance of 1.6 km, releasing a huge number of arrows at the target. In the West, such devices appeared only after 400 years.

The history of the creation of rocket weapons

The first rockets appeared solely due to the advent of gunpowder, which was invented in China. Alchemists discovered this element by accident when they were making an elixir for eternal life. In the 11th century, powder bombs were first used, which were directed to the target from catapults. It was the first weapon whose mechanism resembles rocket launchers.

The rockets, created in China in 1400, were as similar as possible to modern guns. Their flight range was more than 1.5 km. They were two rockets equipped with engines. Before falling, a huge number of arrows flew out of them. After China, such weapons appeared in India, then came to England.

rocket launchers

General Congreve in 1799, based on them, develops a new type of gunpowder shells. They were immediately taken into service in the British army. Then huge cannons appeared that fired rockets at a distance of 1.6 km.

Even earlier, in 1516year, the grassroots Zaporizhzhya Cossacks near Belgorod, when destroying the Tatar horde of the Crimean Khan Melik-Girey, used even more innovative rocket launchers. Thanks to the new weapons, they were able to defeat the Tatar army, which was much more numerous than the Cossacks. Unfortunately, the Cossacks took the secret of their development with them, dying in subsequent battles.

Achievements of A. Zasyadko

A big breakthrough in the creation of launchers was made by Alexander Dmitrievich Zasyadko. It was he who invented and successfully brought to life the first RCDs - multiple rocket launchers. From one such design, at least 6 missiles could be fired almost simultaneously. The units were light in weight, which made it possible to carry them to any convenient place. Zasyadko's developments were highly appreciated by Grand Duke Konstantin, the tsar's brother. In his report to Alexander I, he petitions for Colonel Zasyadko to be promoted to the rank of Major General.

Development of rocket launchers in the XIX-XX centuries

In the 19th century, N.I. Tikhomirov and V.A. Artemiev. The first launch of such a rocket was made in the USSR in 1928. The shells could cover a distance of 5-6 km.

Thanks to the contribution of the Russian professor K.E. Tsiolkovsky, scientists from the RNII I.I. Gvaya, V.N. Galkovsky, A.P. Pavlenko and A.S. Popov in 1938-1941, a multi-discharge rocket launcher RS-M13 and the BM-13 installation appeared. At the same time, Russian scientists are creating rockets. These missiles - "eres" - will become the main part of the defunct"Katyusha". It will be worked on for several more years.

Installation "Katyusha"

As it turned out, five days before the German attack on the USSR, a group of L.E. Schwartz demonstrated in the Moscow region a new weapon called "Katyusha". The rocket launcher at that time was called BM-13. The tests were carried out on June 17, 1941 at the Sofrinsky training ground with the participation of the Chief of the General Staff G.K. Zhukov, people's commissars of defense, ammunition and weapons, and other representatives of the Red Army. On July 1, this military equipment left Moscow for the front. And two weeks later, "Katyusha" visited the first baptism of fire. Hitler was shocked to learn about the effectiveness of this rocket launcher.

hurricane rocket launcher

The Germans were afraid of this gun and tried their best to capture or destroy it. Attempts by designers to recreate the same gun in Germany did not bring success. The shells did not pick up speed, had a chaotic flight path and did not hit the target. Soviet-made gunpowder was clearly of a different quality; decades were spent on its development. German counterparts could not replace it, which led to unstable ammunition operation.

The creation of this powerful weapon opened a new page in the history of the development of artillery weapons. The formidable "Katyusha" began to bear the honorary title "weapon of victory".

Development Features

BM-13 missile launchers consist of a six-wheel drive truck and a special design. Behind the cockpit was a system for launching missiles on a platform installed there.same. A special lift using hydraulics raised the front of the unit at an angle of 45 degrees. Initially, there was no provision for moving the platform to the right or left. Therefore, in order to aim at the target, it was necessary to deploy the entire truck completely. 16 rockets fired from the installation flew along a free trajectory to the location of the enemy. The crew made adjustments already during firing. Until now, more modern modifications of these weapons are used by the army of some countries.

The BM-13 was replaced in the 1950s by the multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) BM-14.

Grad missile launchers

The Grad became the next modification of the considered system. The rocket launcher was created for the same purposes as previous similar samples. Only tasks for developers have become more complicated. The firing range was to be at least 20 km.

hail rocket launcher

The NII 147 took up the development of new shells, which had not previously created such a weapon. In 1958, under the leadership of A.N. Ganichev, with the support of the State Committee for Defense Technology, work began on the development of a rocket for a new modification of the installation. To create used the technology of manufacturing artillery shells. The hulls were created using the hot drawing method. The stabilization of the projectile occurred due to the tail and rotation.

After numerous experiments in Grad rockets, for the first time they used plumage of four curved blades, which opened at launch. Thus, A.N. Ganichevwas able to ensure that the rocket fit perfectly into the tubular guide, and during the flight its stabilization system turned out to be ideal for a firing range of 20 km. The main creators were NII-147, NII-6, GSKB-47, SKB-203.

Tests were carried out at the Rzhevka training ground near Leningrad on March 1, 1962. And a year later, on March 28, 1963, the Grad was adopted by the country. The rocket launcher was launched into mass production on January 29, 1964

Composition of "Grad"

SZO BM 21 includes the following elements:

- rocket launcher, which is mounted on the rear chassis of the car "Ural-375D";

- fire control system and 9T254 transport-loading vehicle based on ZIL-131;

- 40 3m pipe guides mounted on a base that rotates horizontally and aims vertically.

Guidance is carried out manually or electrically. The unit is charged manually. The car can move charged. Shooting is carried out in one gulp or single shots. With a volley of 40 shells, manpower is affected in an area of ​​​​1046 square meters. m.

Shells for Grad

You can use various types of rockets to shoot. They differ in firing range, mass, target. They are used to destroy manpower, armored vehicles, mortar batteries, aircraft and helicopters at airfields, mines, install smoke screens, create radio interference, and poison with a chemical.

Modifications of the "Grad" system are hugeamount. All of them are in service in various countries of the world.

Long-range MLRS "Hurricane"

Simultaneously with the development of the Grad, the Soviet Union was creating a long-range multiple launch rocket system (MLRS). Before the advent of the Hurricane, rocket launchers R-103, R-110 "Chirok", "Kite" were tested. All of them were rated positively, but were not powerful enough and had their drawbacks.

At the end of 1968, the development of a long-range 220-mm SZO began. Initially, it was called "Grad-3". In full, the new system was taken into development after the decision of the ministries of defense industry of the USSR of March 31, 1969. At the Perm gun factory No. 172 in February 1972, a prototype of the Uragan MLRS was manufactured. The rocket launcher was put into service on March 18, 1975. After 15 years, the Soviet Union housed 10 rocket artillery regiments of the Uragan MLRS and one rocket artillery brigade.

In 2001, so many Uragan systems were in service in the countries of the former USSR:

- Russia – 800;

- Kazakhstan - 50;

- Moldova - 15;

- Tajikistan - 12;

- Turkmenistan - 54;

- Uzbekistan - 48;

- Ukraine – 139.

Shells for Hurricanes are very similar to ammunition for Grads. The same components are 9M27 rocket parts and 9X164 powder charges. To reduce the range, brake rings are also put on them. Their length is 4832-5178 mm, and their weight is 271-280 kg. A funnel in medium-density soil has a diameter of 8 meters and a depth of 3 meters. firing rangeis 10-35 km. Shrapnel from projectiles at a distance of 10 m can penetrate a 6 mm steel barrier.

poplar rocket launcher

For what purposes are Uragan systems used? The missile launcher is designed to destroy manpower, armored vehicles, artillery units, tactical missiles, anti-aircraft systems, helicopters in parking lots, communication centers, military-industrial facilities.

The most accurate MLRS "Smerch"

The uniqueness of the system lies in the combination of such indicators as power, range and accuracy. The world's first MLRS with guided rotating projectiles is the Smerch rocket launcher, which still has no analogues in the world. Its missiles are capable of reaching a target that is 70 km from the gun itself. The new MLRS was adopted by the USSR on November 19, 1987.

In 2001, Uragan systems were located in the following countries (former USSR):

- Russia - 300 cars;

- Belarus - 48 cars;

- Ukraine - 94 cars.

rocket launcher beech

The projectile has a length of 7600 mm. Its weight is 800 kg. All varieties have a huge destructive and damaging effect. Losses from batteries "Hurricane" and "Smerch" are equated to the actions of tactical nuclear weapons. At the same time, the world does not consider their use as so dangerous. They equate to weapons such as guns or tanks.

Reliable and powerful Topol

In 1975, the Moscow Institute of Thermal Engineering began to develop a mobile system capable of launching a rocket from various places. SoThe complex was the Topol rocket launcher. It was the Soviet Union's response to the emergence of guided American intercontinental ballistic missiles (they were adopted by the United States in 1959).

The first tests took place on December 23, 1983. During a series of launches, the rocket has proven to be a reliable and powerful weapon.

anti-aircraft missile launcher

In 1999, 360 Topol complexes were located in ten position areas.

Every year, Russia launches one Topol rocket. Since the creation of the complex, about 50 tests have been carried out. All of them passed without any problems. This indicates the highest reliability of the equipment.

To defeat small targets in the Soviet Union, the Tochka-U divisional missile launcher was developed. Work on the creation of this weapon began on March 4, 1968, according to the Decree of the Council of Ministers. The contractor was Kolomna Design Bureau. Chief designer - S.P. Invincible. The TsNII AG was responsible for the missile control system. The launcher was produced in Volgograd.

What is SAM

A set of various combat and technical means that are linked together to combat enemy attack means from air and space is called an anti-aircraft missile system (SAM).

katyusha rocket launcher

They are distinguished by the place of military operations, by mobility, by the method of movement and guidance, by range. These include the Buk missile launcher, as well as the Igla, Osa and others. What is differentthis type of structure? The anti-aircraft missile launcher includes means for reconnaissance and transportation, automatic tracking of an air target, a launcher for anti-aircraft guided missiles, devices for controlling the missile and its tracking, and means of controlling equipment.

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