- Matter and consciousness
- Empiricism and rationalism
- Philosophical trends, currents, schools, teachings of China
- Modern philosophical currents
- Philosophy in everyday life
Philosophy is a science that will not leave anyone indifferent. No wonder, because it touches every person, raises the most important internal problems. We are all visited by philosophical thoughts, regardless of gender, race and class. As it turned out, for thousands of years people have been worried about the same fundamental questions, the answers to which have not yet been found. Despite this, there are many philosophical schools and trends that do not leave attempts to uncover the secrets of the universe.
Matter and consciousness
What comes first - matter or spirit? This question has long divided thinkers into opposing camps. As a result, the main philosophical currents appeared - materialism, idealism and dualism. Adherents of each school develop their ideas, rejecting everything that contradicts them. However, each of these currents spawned countless branches that still resonate in the hearts of people to this day.
Materialism is a philosophical trend that asserts that matter is primary and only it matters. This school dominated England and France in the 17th-18th centuries, as well as insocialist states of modern times. Materialists rely on dry proven facts. They love natural sciences such as chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology, actively using them in disputes with idealists. The materialist can confirm most of his statements with logic and scientific facts, which makes this philosophy very attractive. However, they completely reject the possibility of consciousness to influence matter, considering it an independent independent unit.
The philosophical trend of the idealists is completely opposite to materialism. It attaches great importance to the world of ideas, considering the world of things only its consequence. Idealists believe that matter cannot exist without the idea that gives rise to it. The whole world that surrounds us is the embodiment of ideas and thoughts, and not vice versa. This trend, in turn, is divided into two main schools: objective and subjective idealism. Proponents of the school of objective idealism argue that the world of ideas exists independently of us.
Subjective idealism assumes that the universe exists only in the human mind. Without the process of realizing reality, there is nothing, since matter is generated by ideas that can appear only thanks to the mind of a living being. Idealism is becoming more and more popular these days. Western civilization is hungry for spirituality. Materialism has reigned for centuries in the countries of Europe and America, so that people are fed up with its ideas. Now they seek solace in idealism, which has become for them a breath of fresh air.air in the static world of fixed ideas.
Followers of dualism did not answer the age-old question. For them, he never stood, since this philosophical current claims that spirit and matter have always been. Dualists do not attach more importance to either the spiritual or the material, arguing that both of these components are equally important for the existence of the Universe. A person is considered by adherents of the school of dualism as an indivisible fusion of matter and spirit. All objects in the Universe are a product of either consciousness or matter. So, for example, ideas come into being thanks to consciousness, but things are derived from matter. Dualism has become a kind of fusion of two opposites, incorporating ideas and assumptions from materialism and idealism. However, this did not bring him much popularity, since it is much easier for people to go to extremes than to look for a middle ground.
Empiricism and rationalism
Not only the eternal question of the primacy of matter and spirit split thinkers into different philosophical currents. The directions of this fascinating science also appeared due to disputes about how a person cognizes the world. Two schools have arisen here that hold absolutely opposite points of view, but cannot definitively prove their position. Supporters of the empirical method of cognition say that the world that a person cognizes inevitably bears the imprint of his personality and all the experience accumulated by him.
Rationalism is a philosophical trend, the foundation of which was laid by Descartes. His adherentsThey believe that only a pure mind, not clouded by emotions and past experience, takes part in the process of cognition. Rationalists also believe in a number of axioms that are so obvious to them that they don't need proof.
Philosophical trends, currents, schools, teachings of China
China deserves special attention, with its interesting philosophical currents, which have long been popular not only in China, but also abroad. The most famous of them is Buddhism. He came from India and quickly spread on fertile soil. The Buddha's teaching teaches that attachment to worldly pleasures and material well-being leads to the degradation of our soul. Instead, Buddhism suggests taking the middle path, as well as using the subtle tool of meditation. Thus, you can curb your mind and give up the desires that drag the soul down. The result of correct practice is the complete liberation of the soul - nirvana.
Taoism is very similar to Buddhism, since both of these teachings went hand in hand, constantly influenced each other. His ancestor Lao Tzu introduced such a concept as Tao. This short word hides a whole lot of concepts. Tao means both universal law and universal harmony, and the very essence of the Universe - the unifying force from which we all came and to which we will return after death. Taoists try to live in harmony with nature, following the natural course of things. The result of such a life is complete dissolution in the Tao.
An interesting trend in Chinese philosophy is Confucianism. It owes its name to Confucius. He lived in the 5th-4th centuries BC and served as an official under the emperor. Despite his high position, the Chinese thinker valued kindness and philanthropy above all else. He argued that only the most noble and moral people should be allowed to govern the state, who should inspire the people by their example. Confucius was opposed to a strict system built on violence and coercion.
However, an integral part of Confucianism is humility and unquestioning service to those who are higher in the social ladder. Confucius was a follower of order, ceremony and tradition. His ideas are still popular in China, and some of them have long gone beyond.
Modern philosophical currents
In recent decades, science has made a huge step forward. Many myths were debunked and discoveries were made that completely turned the old picture of the world upside down. This, of course, was reflected in the modern understanding of the Universe. The most popular currents in modern philosophy are existentialism and analytical philosophy. Existentialism focuses on the very act of existence, on its uniqueness and uniqueness. This direction focuses on the intuitive perception of reality, on emotional experiences. A prominent representative of this philosophy is Jean-Paul Sartre.
Analyticalphilosophy is focused on the applied use of knowledge. It is important that every truth can be tested empirically. Adherents of this school worship logic and accuracy, abandoning many classical philosophical ideas.
Philosophy in everyday life
Humanity has created countless philosophies, schools and directions. They are full of smart terms and words that, with their complexity, scare away ordinary people. A touch of scholarship, a heap of incomprehensible words and big names bring philosophy into a number of scientific disciplines accessible only to the most stubborn admirers of this art. But do not forget that each of us is a philosopher. Do not be afraid to join this fascinating science. If you love to think, then the truth will surely come to you, no matter who you are, a professor of philosophy, a football player or a mechanic.