Table of contents:
- What is a mine?
- Types of mining professions
- Working conditions
- Wages for miners in Russia
- Salary supplements
- Miners' benefits
- Miner's Day in Russia
- Some interesting facts
2023 Author: Henry Conors | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 12:05
Many people living in Russia know little about who miners are and how they live in Russia. Usually, all knowledge relates to the fact that they work deep underground and extract minerals. In general, the way it is, but there are still a lot of nuances in this profession. In order to fully understand who miners are, one must first understand what a mine is.
What is a mine?
Mine is underground passages located horizontally, vertically and at an angle. These passages are called workings. They get there with the help of a vertical or inclined trunk. A vertical shaft is a straight tunnel equipped with an elevator that lowers and raises miners, and an inclined shaft is a tunnel at an angle that lowers workers using small wagons. After the miners have been lowered, they disperse to their places, the distance to the shaft can reach 7 km.
In modern workings, coal is mined using lava. The miners call lavaa combine digging minerals, but there are also places where coal is mined using a jackhammer. After the fossils are loaded onto a conveyor, which delivers them to the point of loading to the surface. Coal is usually brought to the surface by means of an inclined shaft.
Types of mining professions
Also, not all people know that the word "miner" is a general classification of people working in production. Everyone has their own profession and a certain type of employment. For example, longwall miners are those people who are engaged in the extraction itself, repair and maintain mining machines, or mine themselves using jackhammers.
Tunnels are made by tunnellers, tunnels are needed for air supply and lifting from coal mining. Also, machinists work in the mine - these are the people who operate various mechanisms. As in all such enterprises, there are electricians involved in the repair of mechanical and electrical equipment. In order for the miners to know the location of all the tunnels and where they lead, there are mine surveyors at the mine, mapping the entire underground part of the mine, directing workers to the right place.
In order for a person to become a worker in a mine, he must first acquire certain knowledge and skills. This is taught in institutes, technical schools, lyceums for 2-5 years. But you can also take an accelerated course of study, such courses are held in the training centers of the mine itself, usuallyYou can study there in 3-4 months. A person who has completed a training course can work in production, but without career growth.
The profession of a miner is very difficult and sawy. Miners work in conditions of high air temperature, tight spaces. Most of the work is done by hand, so the profession of a miner is more complex than on the surface. Maximum safety and efficiency is achieved through team cohesion, thus, the specifics of production require maximum teamwork from people.
Since there is a high level of methane gas pollution underground, it is forbidden to take with you anything that can serve as a spark, even mobile phones and cameras are strictly prohibited. In order for the miners to see something, they have a canagon. Kanagonka is a special helmet-mounted flashlight with a battery for long-term operation. Kanagons are designed in such a way that in any conditions they cannot cause a spark. According to the rules, miners must wear a respirator, but the workers themselves neglect these safety measures, since breathing in a respirator complicates work and takes a lot of strength from a person.
Wages for miners in Russia
Miners risk their lives and he alth every day, is it worth it? At the moment, according to official data, the average salary of miners in Russia is 43,000 rubles. But the workers themselves say that their incomes are many times less. As the saying goesstatistics, at the time of 2009, the salary was 23,000 rubles. And already in 2014, employees were paid 40,000 rubles. During this time, revenues have almost doubled.
The growth of the wages of miners in Russia after 2014 has become less intense, and does not even fully cover the inflation rate. On this occasion, the government of the country declares that it knows how difficult and dangerous this work is. And that there will be no reduction in wages, and as soon as the country gets out of a difficult financial situation, he promises to significantly increase wages. The salary of miners in Russia by years directly depends on the length of service, that is, the more experience a miner has, the more his salary will be.
For the risk of their lives and very hard work, miners are en titled by law to a wage supplement, but, as elsewhere, there is one flaw. According to the law, the employer charges the allowance, but not all employers are honest. Most often, employees are not told about a possible allowance, information about its existence is hushed up, and sometimes it even comes to outright lies when employees are told that there should not be any allowances at all. In this case, the miners have every right to go to court and defend their interests, since this money is rightfully due to them, and they were mined with hard work.
Despite how dangerous and difficult the profession of a miner is, the government provides meager benefits. One of the significant benefits is early retirement. Having worked 25 years on the privates and 20 years on the leadingprofessions, a miner can take early retirement. After a well-deserved rest, a miner can continue to work and receive a pension supplement.
Also, the benefits of miners include free medical care. A miner can conduct a free medical examination, treatment of injuries received at work, examination and treatment of teeth. The state provides benefits for free medicine not only to the miner himself, but also to his family.
A miner can receive a bonus for seniority and quality of work. They issue it once a year, instead of a bonus, they can issue a pension supplement. Children of miners have an advantage in preschool admissions.
In the event that a worker is injured incompatible with work, he will receive cash payments from the state, and he is also given the opportunity to study in another speci alty absolutely free of charge. In case of death, the family will receive permanent payments from the state.
Miner's Day in Russia
Since the time of the Soviet Union, the professional holiday of miners has been celebrated in Russia. The tradition began in 1935, when Aleksey Stakhanov set a record coal production, extracting 102 tons at a rate of 7 tons. The first time the celebration took place on August 29, 1948.
Miners are people who, thanks to their merits and production achievements, are en titled to benefits from the state to improve their living conditions.
Despite the collapse of the state, the holiday is still celebrated in the CIS countries. For nowThe moment the celebration of Miner's Day in Russia takes place on the last Sunday of August. Miners are awarded certificates and cash prizes. In some cities, Miner's Day is a big holiday, and they celebrate it with concerts and folk festivals.
Some interesting facts
- In China in 1931, there was the largest accident at the mine. More than 3,000 miners died in that accident.
- The largest diamond mine in the world is located in Russia. At the bottom of the quarry with a diameter of 1.2 km there are two tunnels in which diamonds are mined. All flights are prohibited over the quarry, as air currents can suck everything that flies over it.
- The first miners took with them a cage with a canary. If the canary, being underground, was silent, it was a signal for an emergency evacuation. As it turned out later, canaries are very sensitive to the content of methane in the air.
- The oldest mine is in the UK. It was founded in 1805, and coal mining continues to this day.
- The first miners lowered horses underground to transport coal. If the horse had already been lowered, then it was not raised to the surface again.
Which city to move to live in Russia: rating. Where to move to live in Russia with a small child? In which city of Russia is it better to move to live?
In some cases, a person thinks about which city to move to live in Russia. There can be a lot of reasons for such a decision, but how to choose a future place of residence is not an easy question. What to be guided by when choosing, what awaits in the new city, what are the climatic conditions, whether there will be work, and so on. So which city is the best place to move to live in Russia? We will try to find the answer to this question in this article
Regardless of material and social status, most people think about how to live better. A millionaire dreams of a billion, a “hard worker” dreams of a higher salary, and a beggar dreams of a delicious lunch. All people are different, but almost everyone wants their living conditions to become more comfortable, and their activities and days to be interesting and full of new impressions
Being in the beautiful world that surrounds us, we feel a natural desire to stay here longer. Protecting your he alth and considering ways to continue life is worth it from a young age
How to get a military ID after 27 years. Do I need a military ID when applying for a job after 27 years
Every young person in his life is faced with the need to serve in the army. For any young man, this issue is very important and responsible in life. However, each of them solves it completely individually. However, soon all young people are faced with the same problem: how to get a military ID after 27 years?
People have always been interested in how others live: what kind of house, car, income does a neighbor have. Is it bad? Scientists say no. First, nothing can be done about curiosity, especially mass curiosity