- Dive into the past
- A landmark of the capital of Russia
- Big stone bridge in Moscow: 1680
- Changes since 1858
- Wedding walks
- Small stone bridge
- Sights of St. Petersburg
- St. Petersburg – city of bridges
About 50 stone bridges are operated on the roads of the Russian Federation. Each of them is of an arched type with a circular, less often ellipsoidal outline of the vault. Stone bridges make up only 0.8% of all existing structures. The number of such structures 25 years ago was about 100, half a century ago - over 150. Even if we take into account those stone bridges that today are transferred to the category of "pipes" or are not on the balance sheet at all, there will be no more than 1 of them on the federal network, 5%.
The decrease in similar structures is also typical for local networks. So, for example, in the Moscow region, out of the existing 800 stone structures, only 5, about 10 - in the Urals. Approximately 20 bridges are operated in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region, in Moscow today there are only 4 arched crossings left. In the North Caucasus, the construction of such structures has practically been suspended. Even in Dagestan, where stone bridge building was given first place, over the past decadeonly 3 new buildings appeared. And this suggests that in Russia stone bridges are unjustifiably replacing industrial reinforced concrete and metal structures, and this also applies to areas rich in this rock.
Dive into the past
One of the very first structures in the capital was built of brick across the Neglinka River. It connects the Trinity Gates of the Kremlin Tower with the Kutafya Strelnitsa. The Stone Bridge in Moscow initially did not have supports with water cutters and vaults. According to the historian Zabelin, the stone structure was built in 1367, today it is crossed by a park - the Alexander Garden.
A landmark of the capital of Russia
The big stone bridge in Moscow was built back in 1692. Then he was called All Saints. However, since 1858 the Big Stone Bridge has been considered the first iron structure in Moscow. In the 16th century, it was possible to cross from one coast to another only along a “live” floating ferry. In the 17th century, the construction of a stone bridge began, in 1938 it was already reinforced concrete, but the name remained the same. In order for it to fully correspond to the name, it was lined with granite.
The panorama of the Kremlin, which opens from the Stone Bridge, can be seen on the back of the passports of Russian citizens. In addition, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, Sofiyskaya, Prechistenskaya and Bersenevskaya embankments are overlooked from this structure.
Other stone bridges were built in Moscow to cross riversand ravines. At the end of the 18th century, Kitay-Gorod and the Kremlin were connected by two artificial structures - Spassky and Nikolsky.
Big stone bridge in Moscow: 1680
Until the 15th century, there was a floating ferry in place of the modern structure. Only in 1643, Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich gave the order to start building the first stone bridge. We entrusted this to a master from Strasbourg - Yagon Kristler. All construction work on the construction of the stone bridge was suspended after the death of the tsar and the master, completed by an unknown Russian monk in 1687. It was completed in 1692 and given the name of All Saints.
The stone bridge reached 170 meters in length and 22 meters in width. It had 8 arches, those that were intended for the passage of boats, with 15-meter spans. It was possible to enter from the left bank through the All Saints Gate, at the other end of the bridge there was a tower with a two-hipped ending.
Changes since 1858
The dilapidated stone bridge was dismantled and in 1858 it was replaced with a three-span metal one (the first in Moscow). In 1938, a new structure appeared on this site, which was worked on by engineer Kalmykov, architects Gelfreich, Shchuko and Minkus. The length of the bridge is 487 meters (including entrances). It offers an excellent view of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Kremlin, and from here you can see the architectural monument "House on the Embankment", built according to the project of Iofan B.M.
The Big Stone Bridge is known to all residents of the former USSR from the footage of the chronicle of Moscow. View of thisThe panorama has not changed to this day and looks very good in the photographs behind the backs of the newlyweds.
The bridge is considered a symbol of unification, so photos taken at this place will constantly remind you of the meaning of this word. Think about how much they have in common. Bridge. Opposite coasts. Two destinies and one family.
Small stone bridge
Small stone bridge crosses the Vodootvodny canal, is in second place after the Patriarchal canal downstream of the capital. This structure is located in the Yakimanka district, with Serafimovich Street on one side and Bolshaya Polyanka on the other.
The small stone bridge was opened in 1938. Its length is 64 meters with a width of 40 meters. This is not the first structure built on this site. Previously, there was a bridge here, the construction of which was completed in 1788. At that time it was made of wood and was called "Kozmodemyansky". In 1880, it was replaced by a stone bridge with the appropriate name.
The Yakovlevs and Golbrodsky worked on the modern design, for some time tram tracks existed here.
Sights of St. Petersburg
In 1752, a wooden bridge with one span was built across the Krivusha River (today known to us as the Griboyedov Canal). Subsequently, engineer Nazimov developed a new project for the crossing. At that time it was the first building made of stone, which is why it was called the Stone Bridge. St. Petersburg today can boast of this crossing, and nono modification work has been undertaken. The design feature of the bridge is the use of diamond rust. This concept is unfamiliar to many, therefore we will explain in more detail what it is. Brilliant rusting refers to the processing of protruding stones in the form of a tetrahedral pyramid, the edges of which, due to special polishing, sparkle brightly when exposed to sunlight, resembling diamonds. This technique was often used in construction, but today you rarely see it anywhere. Stone Bridge (St. Petersburg) was built with four semicircular stairways to the water, which were eliminated in the 19th century.
In 1880, the 7th assassination attempt on the emperor was planned at this place. Members of the "Narodnaya Volya" party planted a bomb under the bridge with the aim of blowing up the crossing when the tsar's carriage was passing through it. Nevertheless, this undertaking was not destined to come true, since the agents of the security department uncovered the plan in a timely manner and Emperor Alexander II crossed the bridge before the Narodnaya Volya arrived on the spot. In 1881, 7 pounds of dynamite were removed from under the structure, but this already happened after the death of the emperor.
St. Petersburg – city of bridges
Peter was honored to be called the guardian of Russian history. In one city, many cathedrals, palaces, chic fountains, magnificent museums and temples have been preserved.
St. Petersburg is the main owner of all kinds of crossings, islands and canals. There are drawbridges, suspension and stone bridges in the city, along which visitors walk. Atof all structures a unique solution. Forged frame gives them a certain uniqueness. Every bridge has a story associated with it. This explains the desire of guests to admire the forged masterpieces of art.
Of course, it makes no sense to describe all the bridges of St. Petersburg. Still, their beauty cannot be expressed in words. I would like to note that stone bridges have truly become the pride of the second capital of Russia. The very first bridges to appear were Prachechny, Hermitage, Kamenny and Verkhne-Lebyazhy, and today they adorn the city.