- Geographic location
- Administrative divisions
- Population of Udmurtia and its dynamics
- Characteristics of the population
- Population density and distribution
In the Urals there is a unique region with a distinctive culture and history - Udmurtia. The population of the region is declining today, which means that there is a threat of losing such an unusual anthropological phenomenon as the Udmurts. Let's talk about the conditions in which the population of the region lives, what are its features and what are the demographic indicators of the republic.
The region borders on Bashkiria, Tatarstan, the Kirov Region and the Perm Territory. The area of the republic is 42 thousand square meters. km, this is the 57th place in Russia in terms of the size of the region. Udmurtia is located on the East European Plain, and this determines its relief, mostly flat with slight hilliness. The region is very rich in water resources, about 30 thousand kilometers of rivers of the Kama and Vyatka basins flow here. Soddy-podzolic soils predominate in the republic, which, due to the washing out of the fertile layer, need fertilizers for productive agricultural use. The population of Udmurtia has been adapting to its geographical location for centuries and has learned to extract maximum benefits from it.Being almost in the center of Russia allowed the republic to find its place in the trade and transport relations of the regions.
The Udmurt Republic is located in the center of the continent, at a great distance from the seas and oceans, and this determined its climate - temperate continental. The average annual temperature in the region is 1.5 degrees Celsius. Here, seasonality is classic for central Russia. With a cold winter, which lasts about 5 months, and a non-hot three-month summer. The warmest month is July, when the thermometer rises to an average of 19 degrees Celsius. Winter sets in in mid-November, when the snow cover sets in. In winter, minus temperatures are constantly maintained, the thermometer at night can show minus 25. Summer begins at the end of May and ends at the beginning of September. In July, the air can warm up to 23 degrees. A lot of precipitation will fall in the republic - about 600 mm per year. The wettest periods are summer and autumn. The population of Udmurtia believes that the climate here is excellent - there are no severe frosts and sweltering heat, the duration of the summer allows you to grow crops necessary for subsistence.
The population of Udmurtia lives in 25 administrative districts and 5 cities of republican subordination. The capital of the republic is Izhevsk. In the districts of the republic there are 310 rural settlements and one city - Kambarka. Each subject of the region has its own manager, who reports to the head of the republic.
Population of Udmurtia and its dynamics
Since 1926, the population has been constantly monitored. Then 756 thousand people lived in Udmurtia. In Soviet times, the republic developed steadily, which led to a positive dynamics in the number of inhabitants. In 1941, 1.1 million people lived here. Years of war brought the population down to one million. But in subsequent years, Udmurtia is actively growing with new residents. In 1993, the region had 1.624 million inhabitants. The years of change and perestroika have brought many difficulties, and Udmurtia is beginning to lose population. So far, the republic has not been able to reverse the downward trend in the number of residents. At the moment, Udmurtia has 1.5 million people.
Characteristics of the population
Udmurtia is a rare region for Russia, where the percentage of residents who consider themselves Russians is lower than in other regions. The number of Russians here is 62%, Udmurts - 28%, Tatars - about 7% (as of 2010). The remaining nationalities are represented by groups of less than 1%.
The population of Udmurtia differs from many regions in their religion. The original inhabitants of the region were pagans. In the 13th-14th centuries, they were strongly influenced by Islam. Since the 16th century, the first attempts to spread Christianity in these lands began. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Orthodoxy was enforced literally by police measures. The population did not show visible resistance, but still continued to profess paganism. Withthe advent of Soviet power begins the persecution of all forms of religion, which leads to the departure of religion to the periphery of the inhabitants of the region. With the beginning of perestroika, a wave of national self-consciousness rises, and with it begins a complex era of religious search. Today, 33% of the population of the republic speak of themselves as Orthodox, 29% consider themselves believers, but cannot decide on a religion, 19% do not believe in God at all.
The numbers speak well of the stability of the region's development prospects. The first is birth and death. In Udmurtia, the birth rate is slowly but growing, while the death rate remains almost unchanged. Life expectancy is growing slightly and averages 70 years. The region is experiencing negative migration, that is, it is gradually losing its inhabitants.
The ancient people of the Udmurts - the indigenous population of Udmurtia - was first mentioned in the annals of the 5th century BC. The tribes that lived in the territory between the Volga and the Kama spoke the language of the Finno-Ugric language family and combined the genes of many peoples. But the Ares became the basis for the formation of the ethnic group, other nationalities supplemented the genotype and culture of the Udmurts. Today, a lot of work is being done in the republic to maintain and preserve the traditional national culture. The people had to endure many hardships of attacks, this helped to form a national character, the main features of which are diligence, modesty, patience, hospitality. The Udmurts have preserved their language, unique traditions and folklore. Udmurts are a singing nation. Baggagefolk songs is huge, they reflect the history and worldview of this ethnic group.
Population density and distribution
The region has an area of 42 thousand square meters. km, and the population density of Udmurtia is 36 people per sq. km. km. Most of the Udmurts live in cities - 68%. The largest city is the capital Izhevsk, more than 700 thousand people live in its agglomeration, which is more than 40% of the total population of the region. There is a tendency to reduce the number of rural residents in the republic, which is an alarming signal for the economy.