Table of contents:
- Geographic features
- Climate of Karelia
- Climate of Petrozavodsk
- Seasons of the year
- Transport of Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk is the administrative center of the Republic of Karelia. It is located in the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation. It is also the center of the Prionezhsky district. It is the "City of Military Glory". The climate of Petrozavodsk is cool, temperate continental and quite humid.
Petrozavodsk is located in the very south of Karelia, on the shores of Lake Onega. From the southwest it is bordered by forests, and from the northeast by the bay of Lake Onega. The city is located at a distance of 1091 km north of Moscow and 412 km northeast of St. Petersburg. Petrozavodsk occupies 21.7 km of the coast of Lake Onega, has an elongated shape.
Time in Petrozavodsk corresponds to Moscow. The terrain is relatively flat, since it is located on the East European Plain. The highest height is 193 meters.
Through the rivers, Petrozavodsk has a water connection with the White, B altic, Caspian, Black and Barents Seas. A feature of the hydrology of the city is a large number of springs: there are about 100 of them.
The environmental situation in Petrozavodsk is relatively good. The source of air pollution used to be industrial enterprises and boiler houses, and now it is motor transport. However, air quality is generally satisfactory.
Household waste is stored in an obsolete landfill and can become a source of environmental pollution. Pollution of the waters of Lake Onega is mainly of an organic nature. These are sewage effluents and organic matter from industrial enterprises.
Soil pollution is quite local and is observed near factories and highways. The main sources are: lead, zinc, oil products. Cloudy weather in Petrozavodsk can negatively affect the mental and physical condition of the citizens.
Climate of Karelia
Petrozavodsk is located in the south of the Republic of Karelia. Thus, the climatic region of Petrozavodsk corresponds to the south of this republic. The climate of Karelia is formed under the influence of such factors as the northern location, the relative proximity of the vast continental expanses of Eurasia on the one hand and the Atlantic Ocean on the other. The Arctic Ocean and the waters of the nearby seas and lakes also have a significant impact on the weather. All this determines the unstable nature of the weather with frequent rains, snowfalls and moderate rainfall.
Although their annual amount in the republic is not very large (550 - 750 mm per year), high air humidity and relatively low temperatures create conditions for excess moisture. With thisdue to the high prevalence of dense forests and swamps in Karelia. Most precipitation falls in July and August (80 - 90 mm per month).
The greatest number of cloudy days is observed in the autumn months, and the least - in the spring and early summer. South and southwest winds prevail in the republic.
The average annual temperature ranges from 0° in the north to +3° in the south. The coldest month is January.
Snow cover usually disappears by the end of April, but in the north it may linger until the end of May. Summer is cool and begins according to the calendar summer. This also applies to the onset of autumn.
Climate of Petrozavodsk
The climate in this city is temperate continental with elements of northern maritime. The winter is long but not very cold. Summer starts in the 1st half of June. Spring processes develop only in mid-April, however, cold snaps can also occur in May.
Despite the relatively favorable climatic conditions, Petrozavodsk was classified as a region of the Far North.
As for the republic as a whole, in its north frosts are possible even in June, and at the turn of April and May there is still snow. Thus, the north of Karelia is much colder than the rest of the territory.
The average temperature in Petrozavodsk is +3.1°C, the average July temperature is +17, and the January temperature is -9.3°C. The period with a positive average daily temperature lasts about 125 days. Precipitation in Petrozavodsk is 611 mm. They are mainly associated with the North Atlanticcyclones. Cyclonic weather is common here, and over 50 percent of the days are cloudy.
Seasons of the year
The climate of Petrozavodsk determines the good severity of the seasons of the year. Summers are relatively cool and humid. But there is also a short-term warming up to + 30 ° C in combination with sunny weather. However, then the temperature drops sharply and heavy rains begin. A feature of summer in Karelia is the so-called white nights, which are most pronounced in the north of the republic.
Autumn starts from the first days of September. Foliage turns yellow and cool. This month in the forests you can find a huge number of mushrooms. In October, in addition to rains, snowfalls can also occur. Severe frosts begin. In November, a negative temperature background already prevails, snow lies, and water bodies are shackled with ice. Positive temperature in the form of weak thaws is possible only in the daytime.
Winter is quite cold and snowy. By the end of February, the thickness of the snow can reach 1.5 meters. The weather is often cloudy, but there are also clear days. February is characterized by an increased number of winds. Due to the high relative humidity of the air, frosts are felt stronger than they really are.
Before, frosts with temperatures below -30°C were not uncommon, but now this does not happen often. The culprit behind these changes is global warming.
The record for the maximum temperature in Petrozavodsk is +33.9°C, and the minimum is -41.6°C.
The driest month of the year is February (26 mmrainfall), while they themselves are wet in July and August (82 mm per month).
Transport of Petrozavodsk
Most types of public transport operate in Petrozavodsk. There is no tram or metro. Road transport is represented by the M18 Kola federal highway. Also, a number of regional roads depart from the city.
Petrozavodsk is an important railway junction. The city is connected by rail with Murmansk, St. Petersburg, Sortavala, and other cities. The main line is the Oktyabrskaya railway.
Trolleybus appeared in the city in 1961. More than 90 trolleybuses run daily in Petrozavodsk. The total length of trolleybus lines is almost 100 km.
Urban bus transport has more than a century of history and is still very relevant.
Petrozavodsk is also an important water transport hub. Vessels can be both tourist, cruise, and scheduled. The latter have local significance.
Air transport is represented by an airport located 12 km northwest of the city.
Thus, the climate in Petrozavodsk is not extreme, and relatively comfortable by Russian standards. The North Atlantic and regional water spaces are of decisive importance for weather processes. Therefore, the weather in Petrozavodsk is unstable, with frequent rains. The maximum precipitation occurs in summer, but winters are still snowy. Characterized by the accumulation of snow during the season. The annual amount of precipitation is moderate, but the totalmoisture is excessive, which causes the spread of forests and swamps.