Environmentally friendly transport: types, principle of operation

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Environmentally friendly transport: types, principle of operation
Environmentally friendly transport: types, principle of operation

Polluting cars may disappear in the distant future. In the meantime, only environmentally friendly transport appears. Although some of its species have been around for a long time. They just need to be improved. Developers have a lot of ideas. Unfortunately, many of them have not yet been implemented.

New bike modification

This idea came from Briton Clive Sinclair, the founder of Sinclair Research. Previously, he was noted for the invention of the ZedX Spectrum personal computer.

In the 70s of the last century, he developed a three-wheeled electric cycle. In this model, the bicycle has been assimilated with the electric scooter.

Sinclair had no doubts about his success and invested more than 15 million dollars in this project. The chassis of the planned environmentally friendly transport was finalized by experts from the Lotus company.

The engines were supposed to be produced by the Italian company Polimotor. Assembly work took place at the Hoover enterprise. And in early 1985, the tricycle became the object of sales. The product was named Sinclair C5. Hisfeatures:

  1. One-piece body made of durable plastic.
  2. Available front fairing and hard bucket seat.
  3. On the steering wheel, the engine start button.
  4. The position of the steering wheel itself is under the rider's knees.
  5. The power of the power unit is 250 watts. It lacked smooth rev control.
  6. The weight of the whole tricycle is 30 kg, and the battery is 15 kg.
  7. The reserve charge allowed to move without recharging a maximum of 30 km. After that, the transport became an ordinary bicycle.

The first edition of tricycles was sold out instantly. But then there was a sharp drop in sales. Sinclair made a significant mistake - he chose the wrong time to enter the market: three months before the start of the season. And those people who became owners of this transport had to wait for spring. And someone decided not to buy a tricycle at all.

Sinclair tricycle
Sinclair tricycle

The press was heavily critical of this vehicle as it proved to be completely unprepared for British roads and weather.

In 6 months, only 12,000 sales of tricycles were recorded (instead of the planned 60,000). Sinclair admitted his failure. And soon the production of his offspring ceased.

American Tumbler

electric scooter
electric scooter

This personal eco-friendly vehicle was created by a company owned by Dean Kamen.

In fact, an electric version of the scooter was created. Its specifics:

  1. Dynamic stabilization.
  2. Placing wheels on the same network. This has become the key to compactness and excellent maneuverability.
  3. 5 gyroscopes with computer signal processing. This provided excellent stability.

The driver started moving by simply leaning back or forward. The brainchild of Kamen was called "Segway". The presentation took place at the end of 2001. And in March of the following year, the first three models were sold at an auction.

In the first year of implementation, approximately 6,000 scooters were sold. Today parameter exceeds 50,000 pieces.

About 40% of purchases are made by the police. It equips patrols in parks, train stations, airports and large sports venues with this tool.

Police officer on an electric scooter
Police officer on an electric scooter

"Segways" are constantly being upgraded, and new modifications appear. And today, the model automatically takes action in the event of an emergency fall: a special signal is given, and the speed drops.

Lithium-ion batteries are arranged in technology. They allow you to overcome 25-40 km. To restore the charge, the scooter is simply connected to a household outlet. Treatment duration: 8-10 hours.

The maximum dynamics of the scooter is 20 km/h.

Japanese equivalent

Specialists of the concern "Toyota" decided in response to the Americans to develop the most environmentally friendly transport, in their opinion. The electric chair was created.

Japanese segway
Japanese segway

The joystick is used to control it. In 2005, a modification with four wheels was presented - i-Unit. In 2008, a modernized version was released, but with threewheels - i-Swing.

The i-Real model became the crown of creation. Its specifics are as follows:

  1. Real-time wheelbase changes.
  2. When driving at modest speed, the controlled rear wheel is as close to the front wheels as possible. When you press the gas, the distance between the axles increases, and the chair acquires excellent stability.
  3. The speed limit is 30 km/h.

There is only one drawback - such models are not available in free sales.

Ecobus data

Severe air pollution in megacities forced the developers of Trolza CJSC from Engels to create environmentally friendly public transport. It received the name - ecobus.

It is based on Capstone microturbine systems. Ecobus has plenty of advantages:

  1. Mobility.
  2. Low-floor platform.
  3. Comfortable and warm cabin.
  4. Silent move.
  5. Economy of fuel (liquefied gas). This is the merit of the designated microturbines. Also, thanks to them, a minimum of toxins is released into the air. And during stops, the exhaust parameter is reduced to zero.

The current ecobus template was presented in May 2008. This environmentally friendly type of urban transport has successfully coped with all tests. He was awarded a high quality certificate. And it is already planned to launch a circulation production. The debut five models are currently used in Krasnodar and Moscow.

Ecobus situation in the world

Modern ecobus
Modern ecobus

Analogues of debutdomestic such transport based on well-known microturbines has been intensively used for several years in the USA, England, New Zealand and some other countries.

For example, in New York in 2007, this environmentally friendly transport began to be actively used in the most populated areas. As a result, fuel costs have been significantly reduced and the environmental situation has improved.

In the English city of Newcastle, 10 modern ecobuses run daily along the local waterfront. They are equipped with Capstone C30 microturbines.

The interaction of these devices with the batteries on board creates a continuous generation of electricity required for the movement of vehicles.

When the bus's automatic control gear sends a signal to the microturbine, it recharges the batteries. For this reason, the ecobus can work about 10 hours a day without recharge.

About hybrid cars

The largest manufacturers have been working on the efficient use of environmentally friendly transport for years.

This list includes Toyota, Nissan, Peugeot, and Ford. They produce modifications equipped with a hybrid powertrain. It is characterized by increased efficiency and environmental safety.

The operating principle of the system is electrodynamics. The braking torque is generated on the traction motor. For this, kinetic energy is transformed into electrical energy. It is loaded with rheostats and braking torque going to the wheels of the main axle, affecting the transmission.

In 2009, LangfordPerformance" has released a hybrid model "Ford". The previously designated microturbine became its base.

Capstone microturbine
Capstone microturbine

The company's engineers are convinced that their brainchild is the most environmentally friendly mode of transport in the world. And in terms of functionality, it also occupies the top positions.

This car was created thanks to the modernization of Ford's S-Max crossover. It was equipped with a microturbine, thereby transforming it into an absolute hybrid.

It was named Whisper Eco-Logic. On demonstration tests, he covered 129 km, having spent only 3.8 liters of fuel.

Electric cars. History

Due to the deterioration of the environment and the rise in the price of oil products in the world, the issue of an established stable production of electric vehicles is quite relevant.

Their history has about 180 years. The impetus for their development was electromagnetic induction. The first models were distinguished by their solid mass and low speed - a maximum of 4 km / h. They were also completely unusable.

Interest in them revived in the 90s of the last century. Between 1996 and 2003 GM EV1 was produced in the USA.

Red electric car GM EV1
Red electric car GM EV1

She became the first serial modification in the new history of electric cars. Then the releases were established by many grants. They and their creations are shown in the following table:

Company Creations



General Motors EV1
Chevrolet Volt




Model S

Reno Z. E series
Nissan LEAF
Lada Hellas

The advantages of electric vehicles

Models of electric cars
Models of electric cars

These environmentally friendly modes of transport have undeniable advantages:

  1. Efficient fuel consumption.
  2. Minimizing air pollution.
  3. Almost silent operation.
  4. Smooth acceleration with rapid acceleration.
  5. High security proven by numerous tests.
  6. Loyal price tags. Their appearance was facilitated by mass circulation of cars.
  7. High reliability. It is achieved by reducing the number of components and nodes.

Weaknesses of electric cars

Such machines have their drawbacks. Their list is given below:

  1. Russia has a poorly developed network of points for recharging electric vehicles.
  2. Speed and mileage limits. Many models without recharge are able to overcome 160-240 km.
  3. Charging time: 8-10 hours.
  4. There are only two seats in the cabin.
  5. Battery needs to be replaced. The periods appear different: from 3 to 10 years.
  6. In the coldthe battery drains faster. As a result, the mileage is reduced by 30-50%.

The situation in Russia

In our country today there is not the highest demand for electric vehicles. The picture can change dramatically in the following scenarios:

  1. The price tag of gasoline will increase 10 times.
  2. The total cost of electric models will decrease.

The second point is really possible under the condition of technological revolution. And today, many world giants do not stop modernizing their models. And in the question of which transport is environmentally friendly and the most advanced, they point to their offspring.

And every self-respecting concern intends to be represented in the electric car market in the next decade.

In this direction, the domestic giant Lada is also trying to keep up, announcing its creation - EL LADA.

In the production of electric transport, our country is losing to Japan, Great Britain, Sweden, the USA and other countries with strong technical development. However, our intellectual and industrial heritage may place us among the leading powers.