Moss swamp: features and main characteristics

Moss swamp: features and main characteristics
Moss swamp: features and main characteristics
Anonim

In the world, swamps occupy huge areas. About 70% percent is occupied by wetlands in South America. In Russia, this figure is approximately 37% of the country's area, in Western Siberia - 42% of the entire territory.

Origin of the term and its meaning

Swamp - an ecosystem of the earth's surface, which is the surface of the Earth with excessive moisture and water accumulation. Vegetation remains accumulate in the water and organic matter accumulates. A swamp can be considered as a living organism that grows, increases in size and develops during the accumulation of peat. If the process of peat formation stops, then the place turns into a peat bog. They are formed after the drying up of rivers and lakes or by swamping the land.

moss swamp

There are several types of swamps: lowland, transitional and upland. The last type includes a moss swamp, which will be discussed in the publication.

Origin and features

The formation of moss swamps has several stages. First, moss is formed in meadows and forests, called "cuckoo flax". He has the ability to holda large amount of liquid, as a result of which peat begins to form. Over time, the surface of peat deposits overgrows, and the area increases. The water balance of the surface layers changes, and the vegetation is renewed: a moisture-loving one appears in place of dead vegetation. Peat layers increase, and as a result, trees in wetlands also die. At the last stage, sphagnum (Sphagnum) appears - white moss, after which the swamps were named moss. It absorbs liquid and has a convex shape.

moss peat bogs

White moss (Sphagnum) grows in water that is poor in soluble s alts. Hypnum moss grows where the water is flowing and hard. It also has moisture capacity, grows at the top, and the lower part of the stem rots and turns into peat.

Moss swamp occupies vast territories with a depth of up to 4 meters. They can be seen in the tundra of the Arkhangelsk province, and in Siberia.

How moss peat bogs form

This swamp is formed by peat moss (Spnagnum). It occurs on damp soil with moist air. Marshes are formed on meadow swamps, wet sandy and clay soil, rocks (western coast of Sweden and Norway). These mosses are moisture-loving and do not grow in high temperatures and dry air. They also evaporate a lot of moisture. Water in its composition is poor in nitrogen, lime (it can cause the death of moss), phosphoric acid and potassium. Properties of peat bogs: glow and mummifying effect.

kochi and moss swamps

Moss swamp hasan uneven surface covered with bumps that form near old stumps. It is very pleasant to sit down and rest on dry bumps after a tiring road, because the water is quite cold even on a hot day, since peat has poor thermal conductivity. The great Russian poet N. Nekrasov said that nature in Russia is “kochi, and moss swamps, and stumps.”

Famous moss swamps

Name

Short description

Old Country Moss

High swamp is located in the Tver region in the Central Forest Reserve. It occupies a huge area of ​​617 hectares.

Vasyugan swamps

Moss peat bogs are located between the Ob and Irtysh rivers, between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk regions. The area covers 53,000 km2. They are a source of fresh water for Western Siberia. There are many rare plants and animals.

Pinsk swamps

Located in Polissia and covers an area of ​​98,419.5 km2.

Mshinsky swamp

Located in the Leningrad region. Area - 60400 ha.

"Big Moss Swamp"

Located in the Kaliningrad region and has an area of ​​about 4900 hectares. Peat capacity is up to 11 meters.

Animals and birds

Most of the inhabitants of the swamps are small in size and adapted to semi-aquatic habitation. In the moss swampssuch animals live:

  • Birds that nest on the hummocks of swamps: plovers, partridges, black grouse, cranes, ducks, herons and lapwings, moorhens, meadow chasing, yellow wagtail, buntings, kestrel, meadow pipit, hobbies.
  • Animals: raccoon, elk, otter, muskrat and mink.
  • Mammals: water rat, water shrew, housekeeper vole, common shrew, field and bank voles. Moss hummocks serve as a refuge for them, they feed on found pine and grass seeds, berries.
  • Various insects (mosquitoes, flies, ticks).
  • Reptiles: viper and viviparous lizard.
  • Amphibians: gray toads and grass frogs, bog turtle.

Some animals listed in the Red Book live in moss swamps.

in moss swamps

Plants

The following plants grow on moss swamps:

  • Berries: cloudberries, lingonberries, cranberries (grows in transitional and raised bogs) and blueberries.
  • Short gnarled pine and dwarf birch.
  • The swamp cypress grows in North America and the Danube.
  • Dewdrop, sedge, wild rosemary, pemphigus, calamus.
  • Ground cover: sphagnum moss and cotton grass.

The fauna of moss swamps is poor. Trees are scattered in small numbers, so forage for animals is scarce. There are not enough places for birds and large animals to hide.

Mshara - what is it?

Moss peat bogs in the north are called Mshara, or Msharnik. So called kochkarnik, which is overgrown with moss. The plant is a stem densely planted with leaves. Near the leaves arebranches that hang down and fit tightly to the stem. The surface of the stem has thin-walled cells with holes, which form capillaries. On them, water rises from the soil, and peat mosses are filled with water. Over time, the old parts die off, turning into peat, and the tops grow upwards. Such swamps as a result of the influx of water grow in width, height and length. The result is a moss mass that rises above the soil water level. Msharniks are rich in tree remains and water mosses also grow in them.

moss peat bogs in the north

The moss swamp is a unique piece of wildlife in its beauty.

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