Ancient temples of Egypt. Sights of Egypt: temples, palaces, fortresses

Ancient temples of Egypt. Sights of Egypt: temples, palaces, fortresses
Ancient temples of Egypt. Sights of Egypt: temples, palaces, fortresses
Anonim

Egypt is one of those countries where visiting allows you to see firsthand the beauty of the ancient world, preserved in magnificent works of architecture.

Ancient Egypt - the beginning of the birth of modern civilization

It refers to the first states that appeared in the world in the distant past (there were several of them - those, information about which has survived to this day). They arose on the territory of the Ancient East due to the good conditions for life that existed there (climate, the presence of water bodies) at the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. e. These include Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China.

ancient temples of egypt

Ancient Egypt (briefly consider the history of this country) was located in the valley of the Nile River. Only along its banks and in desert oases was life possible. The rest of the territory of the ancient state was occupied by the desert. It was a great danger for the Egyptians - advancing sands, which had to be fought all year round and conquered lands suitable for crops, a withering wind that tormented the country in April and May … But at the same time, the desert also brought good: it contributed to the formation of a humid and temperate river in the river valley. climate necessary for successful farming, and was a natural barrier against attacksfrom other countries. Here, along the banks of the Nile, covered with fertile black earth, the great civilization of Egypt arose, whose beautiful works of art and majestic architectural structures modern man can admire even now.

Great rulers are the embodiment of the gods on earth

They are the chosen ones of the gods, mediators between heaven and earth, the unshakable center of the country. The history of ancient Egypt has more than four thousand years, and all these long centuries it was a single whole - a state in which time seemed to freeze.

The significance of the pharaoh was expressed in the fact that with the coming to power of the king, a new era and a new countdown began for the country. The ruler, the earthly incarnation of the god Horus (Horus), had to zealously monitor his main we alth entrusted to him by the gods - Egypt. He eradicated violence and evil, established justice, order and harmony.

temple of hatshepsut

One of the main duties of the pharaoh was the construction of houses for the great gods. The ancient temples of Egypt, built in huge numbers, glorified Osiris, Isis, Ra and other deities. The pharaoh himself was also the high priest, who conducted religious rites and ceremonies. It was believed that the gods could only hear him. Therefore, the ancient temples were of great importance in the life of the Egyptians.

Art

Time has preserved for us only a small fraction of the works of art of the ancient Egyptians. A huge number of precious items were buried with the pharaohs in the pyramids, but all the tombs of the kings found todaywere plundered millennia ago. Only the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun gave the world an idea of ​​the great skill of ancient artists, potters and jewelers.

There is something that even time could not cope with. These are the ancient temples of Egypt and the pyramids. Of course, the past millennia had a strong impact on their safety, and some of the architectural structures disappeared without a trace. But the preserved ancient temples can give an idea of ​​the life of the Egyptians and their religion. Thanks to the fact that the walls of buildings were covered with frescoes with scenes glorifying the pharaohs and inscriptions telling about their deeds, we now know a lot about that time.

Architecture

The majestic ancient temples of Egypt and the monumental pyramids are the main example of the architecture of the builders of the past. It is believed that the history of architecture began in this country. Due to the lack of forests, the building materials here were limestone, sandstone, granite and raw brick. The stone was used to build pyramids and temple complexes, palaces and fortresses were built from bricks.

A feature of Egyptian architecture was that the masonry was made without the use of adhesive solutions. Inside and outside the walls of temples and columns were decorated with frescoes, figurines and inscriptions. All of them were symbolic.

You can see the work of ancient architects with your own eyes or on a photo of Egypt. Temples and pyramids, even in the images, amaze with their monumentality, strictness of lines and majestic calmness.

How ancient architectural structures were built

Pyramids are one of the mysteries of history,which modern man still cannot solve. Actually, everything connected with them is one big puzzle. Scientists are still not sure that the pyramids were built as burial complexes of the pharaohs. How exactly they were built, given the lack of any technology for processing and delivering giant stone blocks, is another mystery of the pyramids.

A lot more is known about the construction of temples. There were three types of them: rocky, semi-rocky and terrestrial. The latter were built according to a certain type. They were rectangles surrounded by high walls. A road usually led from the Nile to the temple, which was decorated with statues of sphinxes on both sides. The structures did not represent a complete composition, they were erected according to the principle of form - the buildings were attached one after another.

Rock temples had an external facade, all other rooms were cut down in the rock. Semi-rock complexes were built partly on the surface, and partly in the rocks.

Columns were an obligatory element of temples. There are 134 of them in the hall of the Karnak temple. Often they depicted bundles of reeds.

The ancient temples of Egypt had no windows. They were illuminated by small openings under the roof itself.

It was obligatory to cover the walls of the temple complex or paint with paint.

The great female pharaoh and her sanctuary

One of the most beautiful buildings in Egypt - the Temple of Hatshepsut - was erected for the great ruler who led the country in the era of the New Kingdom.

ancient temples

In the history of this ancient state, there were onlyseveral cases when power passed into women's hands, and this happened at moments of crisis. Hatshepsut, a pure-blooded queen, daughter of Thutmose I, was the high priestess of Amun, which in no small measure helped her to get the reins of power in Egypt. She became the wife of her brother Thutmose II and after the death of her husband from illness she led the country.

photos of egypt temples

The queen is known as the builder pharaoh. During her reign (for 22 years) many temples, obelisks, sanctuaries were erected, monuments destroyed by the Hyksos conquerors were restored.

The mortuary temple of Hatshepsut is located to the west of Thebes and belongs to the semi-rocky type. In ancient times, it was called "Djeser Djeseru" - "The Most Holy of the Holy", and they began to name it in honor of Queen Hatshepsut much later.

The builder of this magnificent architectural complex was the architect Senmut, who was later entrusted by the great woman pharaoh with the upbringing of her daughter Nefrura. The temple was built in record time - 9 years. It is carved into the rocks and seems to be their natural extension. It consists of three huge terraces, located one above the other. Each has an open courtyard and a sanctuary. In ancient times, the road to the first terrace was planted with myrrh trees, specially brought to Egypt for this purpose. According to tradition, brightly colored sphinxes also adorned the road.

The original beauty of Hatshepsut's temple is lost. It has suffered from time and earthquakes. But even now, the magnificent monument of antiquity impresses with its severity of lines and grandeur.

Ancient beautyLuxor

Egypt can amaze not only with the monumentality and grandeur of the famous pyramids. Karnak Temple, dedicated to the god Amun-Ra, is the largest architectural complex in the country.

egypt temple of catherine

It is located on the right bank of the Nile in the small village of Karnak, three kilometers from another famous temple - Luxor. It is connected to it by a long alley, decorated with statues of sphinxes. In ancient times it was called Ipet-Isut. The gigantic temple complex has been under construction for over a thousand years.

The sanctuary was erected in honor of the god Amun-Ra, but also includes temples of other Egyptian deities - Khonsu, Ptah, Montu, Mut. There are chapels, numerous obelisks, statues of pharaohs and a sacred lake.

egypt karnak temple

The center of the Karnak temple and its pride is the Great Hall of Columns. It was built during the reign of the pharaohs Seti I and Ramesses II. It contains 134 columns arranged in 16 rows. The largest of them have the height of an 8-storey building.

The size of the temple complex is huge. It has more than 30 temples. Most of the territory is closed to tourists, since archaeological excavations and the restoration of ancient monuments do not stop here. At present, the alley of sphinxes is literally being recreated bit by bit.

Holy place of Christendom in the land of the pharaohs

A country of many religions - this is how you can characterize Egypt with full confidence. Catherine's Temple - one of the revered shrines of the Christian world - is located on its territory. Structurehas existed for 1600 years. The temple was founded in the 4th century and fortified by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I in the 6th century.

temple of saint catherine in egypt

The Temple of St. Catherine in Egypt was built at the foot of Mount Sinai, where, according to biblical legend, Moses received the Ten Commandments from God, who appeared to him in the flame of a burning bush. It is named after the Christian enlightener Catherine, who lived in the 3rd century, was tortured and executed for refusing to renounce her faith in Christ.

The Temple of Catherine is a whole town, including a monastery, a temple and hundreds of other buildings.

Abu Simbel

On the territory of Egypt you can see many magnificent temples. One of them is interesting because it is carved into the rock, and only the facade is outside. More precisely, these are two sanctuaries of a married couple: Pharaoh Ramses II and Queen Nefertari. Another purpose is to determine the southern border of the state. The shrines are famous for their giant sculptures depicting the pharaoh and his wife.

ancient egypt briefly

Conclusion

In ancient times, Egyptian temples were an important part of the religious life of the great country. Today, their value lies in the cultural heritage they represent. Architectural monuments give modern man the opportunity to touch the deep antiquity and allow you to learn more about the history of Ancient Egypt.

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