Left and right views in politics. What are the political views?

Left and right views in politics. What are the political views?
Left and right views in politics. What are the political views?
Anonim

The life of the state and democratic society in Western countries is now built on liberal principles, which presuppose the presence of many points of view on various issues facing the country and society itself (multiple opinions is called the term "pluralism"). It was this difference in views that provoked the division into left and right, as well as centrists. These directions are generally accepted in the world. How do they differ from each other? And how is the relationship between those on the right and those who call themselves "left" characterized?

Right political direction

First of all, it must be said that such terms refer to social and political movements and ideology. Right-wing views are characterized by sharp criticism of the reforms. Such parties advocate the preservation of the existing economic and political regime. At different times, the preferences of such groups may differ, which also depends on the culture and region. For example, in the early nineteenth century in America, politicians who had right-wing views advocated the preservation of the slave system, and already in the twenty-first century they opposed medical reform for the poor.population.

right-wing views

Left political direction

You can say that this is a kind of antipode of the right. Left political views is the collective name for ideologies and movements that advocate reform and large-scale change in the existing political and economic regime. These areas include socialism, communism, anarchy and social democracy. The left is demanding equality and justice for all.

History of the division of political views and the emergence of parties

In the seventeenth century, there was a split in France between the aristocracy, which then actually had the sole power, and the bourgeoisie, content with the modest role of creditor. Left and right political views were formed after the revolution in the parliament. It so happened by chance that in the right wing of the parliament there were so-called Feuillants, who wished to preserve and strengthen the monarchy and regulate the monarch by means of a constitution. In the center were the Girondins - that is, the "wavering". On the left side sat the Jacobin deputies, who were supporters of radical and fundamental changes, as well as all kinds of revolutionary movements and actions. Thus, there was a division into right and left views. The first became synonymous with the concepts of "reactionary" and "conservative", and the second was often called radicals and progressives.

left and right political views

How vague are these concepts?

Left and right political views are actually very conditional. At various times inin different countries, virtually identical political ideas were assigned to one or another position. For example, after its appearance, liberalism was unambiguously considered a leftist trend. Then it began to be defined as a political center in terms of compromise and alternative between the two extremes.

Today, liberalism (more precisely, neoliberalism) is one of the most conservative trends, and liberal organizations can be classified as right-wing parties. Some publicists are even inclined to speak of neoliberalism as a new kind of fascism. Even such a strange point of view takes place, because one can recall the Chilean liberal Pinochet with his concentration camps.

right-wing parties

Communists and Bolsheviks - who are they?

Left and right political views are often not only difficult to separate, but also mixed with each other. A vivid example of such contradictions is communism. The vast majority of the Bolshevik and Communist parties entered the big arena after disengaging from the social democracy that gave birth to them.

The Social Democrats were typical leftists who demanded the expansion of political rights and freedoms for the population, the improvement of the economic and social situation of workers by means of reforms and gradual peaceful transformations. All this was actively opposed by the right-wing parties of that time. The Communists accused the Social Democrats of cowardice and headed for more rapid changes in society, which is clearly seen in the history of Russia.

Objectively speaking, financial situationthe working class did improve. However, the political regime established in the Soviet Union finally destroyed all the democratic rights and freedoms of the people instead of expanding them, as the same left-wing Social Democrats would have demanded. Under Stalin, in general, there was a flourishing of the totalitarian right-wing regime. Hence, there is a persistent problem in the classification of certain parties.

right-wing political views

Sociological differences

It is in the field of sociology that the first difference can be found. The left represents the so-called popular strata of the population - the poorest, in fact, without property. It was them that Karl Marx called proletarians, and today they are called hired workers, that is, people who live only on wages.

The right-wing views have always been directed more towards independent individuals who can live both in the city and in the countryside, but own land or any means for production (shop, enterprise, workshop, and so on), that is force others to work or work for themselves.

Naturally, nothing prevents the right-wing parties from contacting the aforementioned proletariat, but not in the first place. This difference is the first and fundamental line of division: on the one side are the bourgeoisie, leading cadres, representatives of the liberal professions, owners of commercial and industrial enterprises; on the other hand, poor peasant farmers and hired workers. Naturally, the border between these two camps is blurred and unstable, whichcharacterized by frequent flow of frames from one side to another. Also, one should not forget about the notorious middle class, which is an intermediate state. In our time, this border has become even more conditional.

right and left views

Historical and philosophical difference

Ever since the days of the French Revolution, the political left has been directed towards radical politics and reforms. The present state of affairs has never satisfied politicians of this kind, they have always advocated change and revolution. In this way, the left showed commitment and desire for rapid progress. Right-wing views are not opposed to development, they demonstrate the need to protect and restore old values.

As a result, one can observe the conflict of two opposing trends - adherents of the movement and supporters of order, conservatism. Naturally, we must not forget about the mass of transitions and shades. In politics, representatives of the left parties see a means to launch change, an opportunity to get away from the past, to change everything that is possible. The right sees power as a way to maintain the necessary continuity.

Characteristically, one can also discern certain differences in attitude towards reality in general. The left often demonstrates a clear inclination towards all kinds of utopia and idealism, while their opponents are unambiguous realists and pragmatists. However, notorious right-wing fans can also be enthusiastic fanatics, albeit quite dangerous.

left political view

Political difference

Left-wing politicians have long proclaimed themselves the defenders of popular interests and the only representatives of trade unions, parties and associations of workers and peasants. The right, although they do not explicitly express their contempt for the people, are adherents of the cult of their native land, the head of state, devotion to the idea of ​​the nation. Ultimately, it is not for nothing that they are called spokesmen for national ideas (often they are prone to nationalism, authoritarianism and xenophobia), and their political opponents are called the ideas of the republic. In practice, both sides can act both from democratic positions and use obvious totalitarian methods of influence.

leftist political views

The extreme form of rightism can be called a rigidly centralized totalitarian state (for example, the Third Reich), and leftism is a rabid anarchism that seeks to destroy any power in general.

Economic difference

Left political views are characterized by the rejection of capitalism. Their carriers are forced to put up with it, because they still trust the state more than the market. They welcome nationalization with enthusiasm, but look at privatization with the deepest regret.

Those politicians who have right-wing views believe that it is the market that is the fundamental factor in the development of the state and the economy in general throughout the world. Naturally, capitalism is met with enthusiasm in this environment, and all kinds of privatization - with sharp criticism and rejection. This does not prevent a nationalist from being a supporter of a strong state and strengtheningthe public sector in various sectors of the economy, and a person with leftist views to be a libertarian (adherent to the maximum free market). However, the main theses remain generally unshakable: the idea of ​​a strong state is on the left, and free market relations are on the right; planned economy on the left, and competition and competition on the right.

Differences in ethics

Left and right political views also differ in their view of the national question. The former advocate anthropocentrism and traditional humanism. The latter proclaim the ideas of a common ideal that would dominate a single individual. It is here that the roots of the inherent religiosity and atheism of the left lie in the majority of the right. Another difference is the importance of nationalism for the former and the need for internationalism and cosmopolitanism for the latter.

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