- Autumn is the time of holidays
- Harvest Festival in Israel
- Korean autumn traditions
- Wine harvest
- Autumn holidays among the Slavs
- Traditions and rituals of autumn in Russia
- Belarusian autumn traditions
- Autumn equinox. Ceremonies and rituals around the world
- Autumn equinox among the Slavs
- Orthodox autumn holidays, traditions, rituals
- Autumn signs in Russia
Rites and customs are part of the culture of every people, whether it is a huge nation or a small community. They accompany us throughout our lives. Some of them go back centuries, and we forget them or do not know about them at all. Others continue to exist. We invite you to get acquainted with the autumn rites, the history of their occurrence and essence. The traditions associated with the onset of autumn are interesting and varied in different countries.
Autumn is the time of holidays
From ancient times, autumn has been the time for various celebrations. Diverse and numerous, for example, ceremonies and rituals on the day of the autumn equinox. Why did it happen? The fact is that the time of agriculture was ending, everyone was harvesting, preparing for winter. Most of the population in those days were peasants, so seasonality had a significant impact on their way of life. Full bins and free time gave people the opportunity to relax.
Harvest Festival in Israel
Mostly people celebrated the Harvest Festival. So, in Israel on September 19, Sukkot takes place. Jews on this day perform the rite of ascension lulava. Lulava consists of four plants - myrtle, willow, date palm leaf, etrog. Each of these plantssymbolizes a person. So, the etrog symbolizes people who do good deeds, and the willow symbolizes people who do not know how to do good. The combination of these plants suggests that everyone should help the other, teach him the right way of life. The holiday lasts seven days. On the eighth, they read a prayer for the bestowal of the next year's harvest.
Korean autumn traditions
In Korea, the harvest festival is called Chuseok. It lasts three days. An interesting point: all people try to go to their native places for these three days. In Chuseok, every family worships their ancestors, after this ritual they are treated to festive dishes from the sacrificial table. Then everyone goes to the graves of relatives to honor their memory.
In Europe, grape harvest holidays are considered traditional. So, in Switzerland in mid-September there is a festival of young wine. About one hundred and fifty varieties of wines are sent here from all over the country. Various shows, dances, concerts are held these days.
Autumn holidays among the Slavs
Autumn holidays among the Slavs often have pagan and Orthodox roots. The most famous were Obzhinki or Dozhinki (among Belarusians). In the nineteenth century, this holiday was celebrated everywhere among the Slavs, only at different times, mainly depending on the climate. So, among the Eastern Slavs, the mentioned holiday coincided with the Assumption of the Virgin, and in Siberia - with the feast of the Ex altation of the Cross of the Lord.
On this day, people performed several autumn rituals. For example, the last sheaf was reaped silently, andthen the women rolled through the stubble with certain words-songs. A few ears of corn twisted into a beard were left on the field. This ceremony was called "curling the beard."
Traditions and rituals of autumn in Russia
The first of September in Russia was called the Indian summer, in some areas the countdown was from September 8th. Already somewhere from Ilyin's day, and somewhere from Uspenyev, in many settlements, autumn dances began to dance. It is worth noting that the round dance is the oldest of the dances of the Russian people, rooted in the rites of worship of the sun god. The round dance in Russia was of great importance. This dance reflected three epochs in a year: spring, summer, autumn.
One of the Russian autumn rites is a round dance called "brew beer". Young women went out into the street and treated everyone to mash, then stood up in a round dance and portrayed drunks. At the end, all the girls were treated to mash.
On Semyonov's day - the first of September - they mounted a horse. In each family, the first-born was seated on a horse. In addition, the New Year was celebrated on the same day for 400 years. It was canceled only in 1700 by decree of Peter 1.
And on September 14, the Osenins began to be celebrated in Russia. People thanked mother earth for a rich harvest. They renewed the fire, extinguished the old, mined a new one. From that time on, all activity on the field ended and work began in the house and in the garden, in the garden. In the houses on the First Osenins, a festive table was laid, beer was brewed and a ram was slaughtered. A cake was baked from the new flour.
September 21 - Second Osenins. On the same day they celebrated the birthHoly Mother of God. September 23 - Peter and Pavel Ryabinniki. On this day, they collected mountain ash for compote, kvass. The windows were decorated with rowan clusters, it was believed that they would save the house from all evil spirits.
Third Osenins - September 27th. In another way, this day was called the snake holiday. According to popular beliefs, all birds and snakes moved to another country on this day. With them, requests were passed on to the deceased. On this day, they did not go to the forest, because it was believed that the snake could drag away.
Belarusian autumn traditions
Autumn holidays among Belarusians are similar to autumn rites and holidays among other Slavic peoples. It has long been celebrated in Belarus the end of the harvest. This holiday was called dozhinki. One of the main autumn rituals was held in dozhinki. The last sheaf was intertwined with flowers and dressed up in a woman's dress, after which it was taken to the village and left until the next harvest. Now dozhinki is a national holiday.
Similarly to the Osenins, Belarus celebrated the harvest festival - the rich man. Lubok with grain and a candle inside was considered a symbol of the holiday. The "rich man" was in one of the houses of the village, where a priest was invited to conduct a prayer service. After that, a lubok with a lit candle was carried through the whole village.
No less famous ritual holiday of late autumn in Belarus - Dzyady. This holiday of commemoration of ancestors falls on November 1-2. Dzyady means "grandfathers", "ancestors". Before the Dzyads, they washed in the bathhouse, cleaned the houses. In the bath, they left a bucket of clean water and a broom for showers.ancestors. The whole family gathered for dinner that day. They prepared various dishes, before dinner in the house they opened the doors so that the souls of the dead could enter.
At dinner they didn't say unnecessary words, behaved humbly, remembered only good things about their ancestors, commemorated the dead. Dzyadov was served to beggars who walked around the villages.
Autumn equinox. Ceremonies and rituals around the world
The autumn equinox falls on September 22, sometimes 23. Day and night become equal at this time. From time immemorial, many peoples have attached mystical significance to this day. Traditions, celebrations and rituals on the Day of the autumnal equinox are commonplace.
In some countries it is a public holiday, such as Japan. Here, according to tradition, the ancestors are remembered on this day. Conduct the ancient rite of the Buddhist holiday Higan. The Japanese on this day prepare food only from vegetable ingredients: beans, vegetables. They make pilgrimages to the graves of their ancestors and worship them.
In Mexico, on the day of the autumnal equinox, people go to the pyramid of Kukulkan. The object is arranged in such a way that on the days of the equinox, the sun's rays create triangles of light and shadow on the pyramid. The lower the sun, the more distinct the contours of the shadow, in shape they resemble a snake. Such an illusion lasts a little more than three hours, during which time you need to make a wish.
Autumn equinox among the Slavs
The day of the autumnal equinox among the Slavs was one of the main holidays.His names were different: Tausen, Ovsen, Radogoshch. Rites and rituals were also performed in different areas.
Ovsen is the name of the deity in mythology, who was responsible for the change of seasons, so in the fall he was thanked for the fruits and harvest. They celebrated the day of the autumn equinox (with rites and rituals) for two weeks. The main celebratory drink was honey, made from fresh hops. Pies with meat, cabbage, lingonberries - this is the main delicacy on the table.
The rite for the autumn equinox was the seeing off of the goddess Zhiva to Svarga - the kingdom of heaven, which was closed in winter. On the day of the equinox, the Slavs also revered the goddess Lada. She was the patroness of weddings. And weddings were most often celebrated after the completion of field work.
On the day of the autumn equinox, special autumn folk rites were held. To attract good luck and happiness, they baked pies with cabbage and round apples. If the dough quickly rose, then next year the financial situation should have improved.
All old things that day were taken out into the yard and burned.
Special rites for the autumn equinox were performed with water. She was believed to have special powers. They washed themselves in the morning and in the evening with the belief that water would keep children he althy and women attractive.
Often our ancestors used trees in autumn rituals and holidays. So, they protected the house and themselves with rowan branches. It was believed that the mountain ash, plucked on this day, has great energy and will not let the evil into the house. Girlsused walnut branches. They put a second pillow on the bed in order to get married soon, burned the branches of the walnut, and scattered the ashes on the street. By clusters of rowan trees they judged winter. The more berries, the more severe the winter.
Sacrifice was a special autumn ritual in Russia. In gratitude for a good harvest in pagan times, the Slavs sacrificed the largest animal to Veles. They did this before harvest. After the sacrifice, sheaves were tied and "grandmothers" were placed. After the harvest, a rich table was laid.
Orthodox autumn holidays, traditions, rituals
The biggest holiday is the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin (September 21). The holiday coincided with the second autumn.
September 27 - Ex altation of the Holy Cross. In the 4th century, the mother of Emperor Constantine the Great found the Cross and the Holy Sepulcher. Many then wished to see this miracle. So the Feast of the Ex altation was established. From that day on, they began harvesting cabbage for the winter. And young guys and girls were going to the cabbage. They laid the table, the guys looked after the brides.
October 14 - Protection of the Virgin. The holiday was established by Andrey Bogolyubsky. In Russia, they believed that the Mother of God took Russia under protection, therefore they always relied on her protection and mercy. At this time, they were finishing work in the field, collecting the last fruits. In Pokrov, women made ten-handled dolls, which, it was believed, were supposed to help around the house, since the woman did not have time to do everything.
On the third dayNovember celebrated "Kazan". This is the Day of the Icon of Our Lady of Kazan.
Autumn signs in Russia
September 11 - Ivan Poletny, Flight Pilot. A day later, they started pulling out root crops, digging potatoes.
September 24 - Fedora-Ripped off. Two Fedoras uphill - one autumn, one winter, one with mud, the other with cold.
September 16 - Corniglia. The root does not grow in the ground, but freezes.
September 28 - gooseflight. On this day, sheep were sheared.
October 1 is the crane year. It was believed that if the cranes fly that day, then the first frost will come to Pokrov. If not, frost should not be expected before November 1.
October 2 - Zosima. The hives were removed into the omshanik.
November 8 - Dmitriev's day. On this day, the dead were commemorated.
November 14 - Kuzminki. Cock name days were celebrated on Kuzminki. The girls arranged a feast conversation, invited guys.
On this day, they performed a ceremony called "the wedding and funeral of Kuzma-Demyan." The girls made a scarecrow out of straw, dressed it up as a guy and held a comic wedding. They seated this effigy in the middle of the hut and “married” some girl, then they took it to the forest, burned it and danced on it. They made Kuzma and Demyan dolls. They were considered the keepers of the family hearth, the patrons of women's needlework.