Interethnic relations and national policy. Interethnic Relations in Modern Russia

Interethnic relations and national policy. Interethnic Relations in Modern Russia
Interethnic relations and national policy. Interethnic Relations in Modern Russia
Anonim

Among Russian experts, there is a popular point of view that interethnic relations are communications, mechanisms of interaction between people of one ethnic group with fellow citizens or residents of other states representing other peoples. Their essence can be based on the discussion of everyday, family, political and other topics, the joint solution of problems. Specialists in the field of psychology identify two main levels on which interethnic relations are built - personal and collective.

Factors of Friendship of Peoples: Collective Level

What determines the nature of relevant communications? What is the key factor in whether inter-ethnic relations will be positive, or, on the contrary, will they carry the potential for conflicts? First of all, we note that everything depends on the level of interaction of people - one of the two that are noted above.

Interethnic relations

First, let's study the factors specific to the collective. Experts believe that the forecast regarding how communication between different nations will develop at the collective level candepend primarily on how they interact historically. This is logical: most of the nations and ethnic groups of the modern world were formed hundreds of years ago, and if we talk about some peoples, even thousands. There are relatively few "young" people who do not have significant historical experience of interethnic communication of peoples, although they exist.

Global Factors

Another important factor is the socio-political situation in the country, in the region, in the whole world. There are precedents that testify that quite amicable, based on historical prerequisites, peoples could "quarrel" (or, conversely, "reconcile") as a result of some changes in political processes. The influence of the media also plays a role, which, however, does not always reflect socio-political realities.

Interethnic relations and national politics

Friendship of personalities

What are the factors that influence interethnic relations on a personal level? Of course, the ones we listed above also play a significant role. However, they may well come to naught if people get along well with each other (or, conversely, have contradictions) at the individual psychological level. Also, how some peoples will relate to others is influenced by the specific actions of people in certain situations. If, for example, representatives of two traditionally warring nations find themselves in a difficult situation and get out of it together, then it is possible that they will have friendship, as they say, like water.

Criteria for an effective national policy

The political and socio-economic development of the countries of the world probably primarily depends on how balanced the domestic policy is built. And only after that - on the quality of communications in the external arena. There are, of course, states in which such a problem does not exist - simply because the population is almost "monoethnic", monolingual, the nation is consolidated by default due to the unity of culture and mentality.

interethnic relations in modern Russia

But Russia is a country in which hundreds of different peoples live, having their own language, culture, worldview. Therefore, the authorities in the Russian Federation are always faced with the task of constantly monitoring interethnic relations within the country, identifying problem areas and effectively resolving difficult situations. But what are the criteria for an adequate national policy? How to find and successfully solve problems of interethnic relations? Experts call a variety of criteria. Consider examples of the most logical and reasonable.

Ensuring Equal Political Rights

And what is important - in relation to all nationalities inhabiting the state. Interethnic and interethnic relations are, first of all, parts of the political process. Accordingly, the nations that participate in it should have the same resources to express their own position, views, and beliefs. They should have at their disposal comparable, and ideally, identical tools for interacting with the authorities. In practice, this may consist in the same political rights, whichIt is customary to refer to the basic ones - to elect and be elected. That is, representatives of different peoples of Russia should have the resources to express their interests and participate in shaping the political agenda for the whole country.

Interethnic relations in Russia

Practical tools for this could be to provide national regions with broad opportunities for self-government, as well as the existence of elective mechanisms through which people of various ethnic groups can be represented in federal and higher government structures.

Smoothing socio-economic inequalities

Harmonization of interethnic relations within one country is difficult if different peoples, even if they live very far from each other, have unequal and disparate incomes, access to good education, medicine, and infrastructure. The authorities should build such a model of the country's economic development, in which national regions that need economic support would receive it, but not to the detriment of those where things are going better.

Practical tools here are a balanced tax and budget policy, reasonable investment - in industry, infrastructure, education.

Creating an atmosphere of mutual tolerance

It happens that several different nationalities have such a dissimilar mentality and culture that they lose the ability not so much for a constructive dialogue, but for communication as such. They may not understand each other, even if the communication is on one understandable language.each of them language. It is, perhaps, not about the meaning of phrases, but about actions, principles, norms of behavior. But this understanding can help to establish a certain third nation through an institution created by them, designed to solve such problems, providing each of the “ununderstanding” with some kind of compromise model of behavior, creating an atmosphere in which the shortcomings of another nation are accepted, not denied. There must be, in modern terms, tolerance in interethnic relations.

Monitoring of interethnic relations

Practical tools for the implementation of this component of the national policy can be the improvement of educational programs, work with the media, holding federal events on the profile of cultural exchange.

Russian scenario

To what extent do interethnic relations and national politics in Russia meet the above criteria? On the one hand, the state was able to build the necessary institutions that reflect each of these mechanisms. Each national republic has its own parliament and representatives in the Federation Council. Any ethnic group living in Russia has absolutely equal political rights. With the economic part, everything is more complicated, but this is rather due to an objectively large territory and, as a result, the inability to equalize the social status of citizens in all regions. Moreover, the difference in the standard of living between individual regions of Russia is practically not tied to the national factor. It is determined primarily by the availability of resources, as well as the climate andinfrastructure. The mass media, at least those that are usually classified as state media, maintain a quite tolerant editorial policy, as well as in the main educational programs. On the other hand, Russia within its current borders and in the current political formation is a very young state. And therefore, it is too early to draw unambiguous conclusions regarding the fact that interethnic relations and national policy are ideally built in our country. Although, of course, there are basic prerequisites for this, and we have named them.

Let's now consider how interethnic relations are developing in Russia at the level of individual social institutions. Let's start with education.

School of Nations

With all the possible comments on the Soviet education system, one of its indisputable advantages is the availability of training in those disciplines that are most significant from the point of view of the development of society - history, literature, social science. At the same time, the national card was never played. Historical and political events were practically not presented to children through the prism of enmity between the peoples inhabiting the USSR, or as the result of the heroism of any single nation. All the good that the socialist motherland has achieved was possible thanks to the efforts of the entire Soviet people.

Soviet model

Many of today's experts believe that it is largely thanks to this mindset laid down in school that today's adult citizens of the Russian Federation by default view other nations mostly in a friendly manner, believing that now we are an integral part of the united Russian people.Some experts believe that we should be largely grateful for the fact that now there is a relative harmonization of interethnic relations, the school of the Soviet era. It is important not to lose the valuable experience that teachers from the times of the USSR have been accumulating for decades.

Measures for the harmonization of interethnic relations

Of course, there are separate examples of when interethnic relations at school are accompanied by difficulties. However, they probably do not represent a system. Today's children, like their Soviet predecessors, are for the friendship of peoples.

State Concept

Interethnic relations in modern Russia are built by the state based on the official concept. Consider its features.

One of the first significant legal acts in this direction is the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation, signed in the summer of 1996. This document has already lost force, however, this legal act contains a rather interesting system of views, as well as priorities and various principles that the authorities at the federal and regional levels must adhere to regarding national relations. The purpose of creating a legal act was proclaimed to ensure the unity of the peoples of Russia in a new historical context.

The document says that the culture of interethnic relations in our country has evolved over the centuries. Most of the ethnic groups inhabiting Russia are indigenous peoples who have played an important historical role in the process of statehood formation. It is emphasized that the Russian people played a unifying role, thanks to whichRussians are a nation that is characterized by a unique combination of unity and diversity of ethnic groups.

90s trends

The Decree of 1996 noted a number of trends that, in the opinion of the authorities, may characterize inter-confessional and inter-ethnic relations in Russia. Let's list them.

Firstly, while the transitional stage is underway (at the time the law was written, not so many years had passed since the collapse of the USSR), the development of the Russian nation is influenced by the desire of many peoples for independence.

Secondly, the ethnic groups that form our nation feel the need for the authorities to conduct a course of effective reforms, taking into account the fact that the socio-economic resources of the regions may not be the same.

Thirdly, interethnic relations in modern Russia are characterized by the fact that the peoples inhabiting our country seek to preserve and further develop their cultural identity.

Work areas today

What does the law suggest in terms of practical policy directions today? What measures does he envisage for harmonizing interethnic relations in Russia? The Decree of 1996 was replaced by a new presidential order, published in 2012. Many of the key concepts that we noted above are confirmed by this legal act. So, what does the authorities propose to do when building interethnic relations in Russia? Here are some excerpts that can give an idea of ​​the possible practice of the mechanisms set out in the new presidential decree.

Firstly, the development and intensification of interregionalcultural communications, dissemination among some ethnic groups of knowledge about others.

Secondly, the state sets the task of intensifying work in the ethnographic direction, in the field of cultural and educational interethnic events, tours, sports competitions.

Third, an important direction is the improvement of educational work with children and youth, with an emphasis on patriotism and raising civic consciousness.

Interethnic relations at school

Friendship of nations is the foundation of Russia's development

These and many other mechanisms of interaction between government and society should, as the Russian legislator believes, create a powerful foundation on the basis of which the development of society will be built not only for the present, but also for future generations. The idea is definitely great. Its implementation depends not only on the policy of the authorities, but also on the actions of the citizens themselves.

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