To the question: "What is a quota?" - it is impossible to give a definite answer. This term was borrowed from the Latin language, and it means a part or a share of something that falls on everyone. Therefore, we can say that the quota is the share of a participant in a common business (production, marketing, import or export), which is carried out by several manufacturers.
The definition of what a quota is has a narrower meaning. A quota is the maximum amount of goods of one category that is allowed to be imported into a country from other states or exported from it abroad. The establishment of such quotas is called quotas.
It is set at the state level. This is a measure of regulation of the country's relations at the external economic level. With the help of quotas, restrictions are set on the import and export of goods in quantitative and value terms for a certain time. Quotas can be applied to certain goods, services, vehicles, and even to producing countries. Such a measure is designed to control supply and demand in the domestic market, and is also used in case of discriminatory actions of foreign trading partners.
But what is a quota for the domestic consumer, and what positive or negative aspects does it have? Entrepreneurs who work in industries protected by quotas have higher profitability. At the same time, a domestic manufacturer that feels pressure from foreign competition on its business has the right to demand the introduction of quotas from the state. But at the same time, under free trade conditions, our goods have a lower cost, and when quotas are applied, their price increases, which leads to a narrowing of the consumer sales area.
What is a quota in international trade and its types
- Global. Determines the total volume of imported goods, regardless of manufacturers and categories.
- Imported. Defines a limit on the number of imports into the country of a certain category of products to maintain the domestic market.
- Individual. Refers to one specific product to be imported into the country.
- Seasonal. Controls the import of fruits and vegetables during the domestic harvest period.
- Customs, which determines the amount of duty on the import of goods.
- Export. Sets export volumes for certain products.
But the word "quota" can be found not only in the vocabulary of an international economist. At present, when technology and the Internet have taken over all our time, both work and personal, we are increasingly mastering knowledge in this area. And among the termsrelated to computer technology, you can also find mention of a quota, such as disk quotas. They make it possible to rationally use disk space, preventing its misuse.
The concept of "quota" is also found in the medical lexicon. Based on the Order of the Ministry of He alth and Social Development No. 1248 (December 31, 2010), every woman, according to the testimony of doctors, can count on receiving a quota for free in vitro fertilization. The decision to provide such a benefit is made by the commission of the city he alth department, for example, in Moscow it is the Moscow he alth department. Quotas are issued based on the patient's request and the decision of a special commission.