The sea has always been the element that attracted a huge number of tourists. However, this water surface serves a person not only for recreational purposes, but is also a place for the extraction of food and minerals, as well as a space used for transporting goods. It is sea transport that is most in demand for the delivery of large cargoes from one country to another. This system includes:
- marine vessels;
- ship repair factories;
- sea routes.
Ships are classified according to numerous criteria. So, differentiation can be based on the area to which sea transport runs, the class of the installed engine, carrying capacity, purpose, etc. If we take the first sign as a basis, then ships are divided into navigation areas from 0 to 4 categories of complexity. At the same time, ships attributed to the latter type are divided into 5 categories. This is how Russian maritime transport is classified. Ships assigned to the navigation area of the 0th category of complexity have the right to pass everywhere without any restrictions.
According to its intended purpose, sea transport can be used both in civilian and ingovernment purposes. Ships of the last category and their varieties are part of the country's navy. The category of civil courts includes:
c) technical fleet.
The second type also collected several subspecies, namely: passenger, cargo and special. The merger of the first and second categories gave rise to another, fourth, type - cargo-passenger ships. Such ships have the right to collect both gravity and people on board at the same time.
Passenger maritime transport transports only people, and in the legal sense means motor ships, ferries and ships that, in addition to the crew, can take on board more than 12 people.
Cargo ships are divided into tankers and dry cargo ships. The first category includes tankers and gas carriers. Dry cargo vehicles are differentiated into general purpose and specialized ships. The latter include maritime transport such as timber carriers, bulk carriers, refrigerated ships, container ships and ro-ro ships. This category is the most widespread all over the world. Thanks to dry cargo transport, the delivery of various cargoes, mostly large-sized and multi-tonnage, is carried out quickly and efficiently. In addition, transportation in this way is not only cheaper, but sometimes the only possible method. These vessels are equipped with all the necessary attributes to perform both loading and unloading operations. In addition, for the transport of goods,products and objects that require special temperature conditions, dry cargo ships are (mostly) equipped with refrigerated holds. Cargo transported on such ships can be packed in a variety of ways: bales, containers, boxes, barrels, etc.
The world's maritime transport is divided into government ships, commercial, passenger and fishing ships, coastal and offshore ships.